Research

This resource library is intended to contain all research, project evaluations, toolkits, policies, and any other types of literature related to Safe Access to Fuel and Energy.

Documents displayed below are only those endorsed by the SAFE Steering Committee, but the search bar and “Advanced Search Options” feature allow you to access all SAFE-related documents within the database.

This resource library was created as part of an effort to enhance coordination of activities, encourage collaboration, and share knowledge between organizations working on SAFE. If you know of additional SAFE resources that are not shown here, please contact us at info@safefuelandenergy.org.

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Found 78 resources.

2017

Global Tracking Framework 2017

Organizations: Practical Action, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, World Food Programme (WFP), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), International Energy Agency (IEA), International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy (ENERGIA), Sustainable Energy for All (SEforAll), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO)
Type: Research

The third edition of the Global Tracking Framework (GTF) provides an evidence-based look at progress at the regional, country, and international level toward ensuring universal access to modern energy services, doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency. The report provides an overview of long-term trends since 1990 and focuses on progress achieved in the most recent period, 2012–14. The 2017 report incorporates references to energy and displaced people, specifically in Boxes 2.7 and 3.5.

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Comparative Analysis of Fuels for Cooking: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts and Economic and Social Considerations

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Eastern Research Group
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Livelihood

This study aims to provide an understanding of the tradeoffs between fuel options and environmental impacts across the value chain (from production through use), and to provide a guide to inform decisions regarding fuel choices for programs and investors. It is meant to aid cookstove and fuel stakeholders to identify and prioritize opportunities, to remove barriers, and increase efficiency across the fuel supply chain while also increasing awareness of environmental, economic and gender and livelihood impacts of various fuel types. The study is a companion to the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves' Fuel Analysis, Comparison & Integration Tool (FACIT).

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2016

Boiling Point Issue 68: Energy in Emergency Settings

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Mercy Corps, Chatham House, GIZ, Household Energy Network (HEDON)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Katherine Arnold, Corinne Hart, Karima Hirji , et al.
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Lighting, Lighting Distribution, SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations, Stove Distribution

In collaboration with Guest Editors, The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, and supported by The University of Nottingham, UNHCR, GIZ, MercyCorps and Chatham House, Issue 68 of Boiling Point Magazine, published in 2016 on several aspects of energy access in emergency settings, including safety, market distribution, gender issues, cooking, and lighting.

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Energy Services for Refugees and Displaced people

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): William Blyth, Glada Lahn, Johanna Lehne , et al.
Type: Research

This paper, which summarises the modelling work done during the first phase of the Moving Energy Initiative, aims to bridge the gap in the literature and inform future analysis on energy access for refugees and displaced people. Through an end-use accounting model for energy consumption for cooking and lighting by displaced populations, the research finds that as many as 7 million displaced people in camps have access to electricity for less than 4 hours a day and that the widespread introduction of improved cookstoves and basic solar lanterns could save $303 million a year in fuel costs after an initial capital investment of $334 million.

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Global Gender and Environment Outlook: The Critical Issues

Organization: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Gender-based violence

This report provides an overview of evidence and policy recommendations regarding the intersection of gender and environment. It argues that gender and environment approaches are critical for sustainable, equitable, and fair management of the planet’s natural resources and ecosystem. The report specifically calls out access to energy (and food, water, and sanitation) as a priority issue because women tend to be the primary managers of these resources in developing countries.

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Opportunities for LPG Use in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: World LPG Association (WLPGA)
Location: Global, Japan, Sudan, India, New Zealand
Type: Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

A WLPGA report that addresses one of the most challenging situations that the world is facing today -- the issue of displaced populations. The document is seen as a first step towards securing partnerships between the LPG industry and the organisations involved in managing these humanitarian settings, with the aim of replacing traditional fuels with LPG.

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The Energy Situation in the Dadaab Refugee Camps, Kenya

Organizations: Practical Action, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Chatham House, Energy 4 Impact
Author(s)/Editor(s): Stephen Okello
Location: Kenya
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

As part of initial research intended to inform subsequent phases of the project, the Moving Energy InitiativeIcarried out an energy survey in 2015 in the Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya. This paper's purpose is to present the results from the 2015 field study. The paper is a summary of the survey report – the whole report can be obtained on request from GVEP International (Energy4Impact)

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The Energy Situation in Goudoubo Refugee Camp, Burkina Faso

Organizations: Practical Action, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Chatham House, Energy 4 Impact, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mattia Vianello
Location: Burkina Faso
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

This paper, one of a series developed by the Moving Energy Initiative consortium partners. Its purpose is to present the results from a field study carried out in 2015 on the energy situation in the Goudoubo refugee camp in Burkina Faso. The paper is a summary of the survey report, which can be obtained on request from Practical Action Consulting (Mattia.Vianello@practicalaction.org.uk).

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Harnessing the Power of Data for Girls: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead to 2030

Organization: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence

Harnessing the Power of Data for Girls: Taking stock and looking ahead to 2030 includes the first global estimates on the time girls spend doing household chores such as cooking, cleaning, caring for family members and collecting water and firewood. Tasks such as gathering water or firewood can also put young girls at increased risk of sexual violence. In countries with available data on chores by type, the second most commonly performed task among girls this age is shopping for the household (50 per cent), followed by fetching water or firewood (46 per cent).

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Evidence Brief: What Works to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict and Humanitarian Settings?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Diana Arango, Manuel Contreras, Mary Ellsberg, Amber Hill, Mairi MacRae, Maureen Murphy
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence

This brief provides a succinct overview of the existing evidence on the prevalence of violence against women and girls (VAWG) and on promising and emerging practices that prevent and respond to VAWG in conflict and humanitarian settings, summarising recent systematic and literature reviews in this field. It includes information on interventions involving both refugees and internally displaced populations (IDPs) affected by conflict, as well as other groups of women and girls who have been affected by natural disasters and/or severe food insecurity. Firewood distribution and fuel alternative programmes is discussed as a promising intervention.

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Forests and Access to Energy in the Context of Climate Change: the Role of the Woodfuel Sector in Selected INDCs in sub-Saharan Africa

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jonas Bervoets, Fritjof Boerstler, Marc Dumas-Johansen, Andreas Thulstrup, Xia Zuzhang
Location: Sub-Saharan Africa
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Livelihood

This article examines the importance of the wood energy sector in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the degree to which the sustainability of the sector is prioritized in the formulation of climate change policies. In these countries, per capita consumption of woodfuels is higher than the global average. More specifically, the article analyses the extent to which the wood energy sector is reflected in selected countries’ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change under the specific adaptation and mitigation priorities and targets.

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Refugees and Energy Resilience in Jordan

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Owen Grafham, Glada Lahn, Adel Elsayed Sparr
Location: Jordan
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Power, SAFE Recommendations

This paper aims to highlight some of the projects that are attempting to overcome water and energy challenges, which have emerged –and deepened –in the wake of the Syrian refugee crisis. It is based on a summary that reflects the challenges and solutions that participants discussed during the workshop, and also builds on an internal background paper presented in advance of the same workshop.

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Environment and Humanitarian Action: Country Study - Nepal

Organization: Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU)
Location: Nepal
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, SAFE Recommendations

The Nepal Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Joint Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. In July 2015, OCHA and UNEP undertook a ten day mission to Nepal to better understand environmental mainstreaming in a rapid onset emergency and provide guidance and advice to humanitarian actors on how to improve mainstreaming efforts. The report recommends integrating energy sector into humanitarian response architecture and references the work of WFP and the SAFE Working Group to coordinate energy aid response in the 2015 earthquake.

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Environment and Humanitarian Action: Country Study - Afghanistan

Organization: Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU)
Location: Afghanistan
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Lighting, SAFE Recommendations

The Afghanistan Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. The study provides guidance and advice to humanitarian actors on how to improve environmental mainstreaming in a protracted crisis. It recommends incorporating energy considerations into emergency preparedness and response, referencing efficient cookstoves and solar technology.

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Prosopis: An Alternative Fuel Resource for Refugees and Host Communities in Dadaab, Kenya

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Megan Gerrard, Anna Myers
Location: Kenya
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations, Stove Distribution

To inform the World Food Programme's Prosopis briquette production and distribution project in Dadaab the Women's Refugee Commission undertook descriptive research, which found Prosopis has great potential to be an alternative fuel resource for both refugees and host communities, but there are numerous challenges that require careful consideration, further research, and technical expertise, as well as extensive consultation and collaboration among stakeholders.

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Energy Access: Humanitarian Relief

Organizations: CARE, Centre for Alternative Technology, Engineers Without Borders UK
Author(s)/Editor(s): Peter Thomas
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Lighting

The main aim of this research is to understand if energy access interventions within humanitarian relief are an effective way of improving the health, safety and livelihoods of beneficiaries, while also having wider environmental benefits including, the reduction of CO2 emissions. The key findings are that modern energy access technologies such as solar lanterns provide significant benefits to beneficiaries. In particular there are positive impacts associated with improvements in indoor air quality and the removal of risks associated with fire. The research suggests interventions also have positive impacts on the perceptions of sexual- and gender-based violence (SGBV), education and livelihoods. However, the research also highlights a discrepancy between the reported levels of CO2 emissions following solar lantern distributions compared to actual, life cycle emissions.

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2015

Heat, Light and Power for Refugees: Saving Lives, Reducing Costs

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Owen Grafham, Glada Lahn
Type: Research
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Heating, Lighting, Power, SAFE Projects

This flagship report by the Moving Energy Initiative (MEI) - a consortium of organizations including Chatham House and the Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) - focuses on the energy needs and use of refugees and displaced people worldwide. It presents the first-ever estimates of the volume and costs of energy used in situations of forced displacement worldwide. The evidence strongly suggests the need for an overhaul in the way that energy is managed within the humanitarian sector and shows how new approaches could benefit refugees and displaced people, host country communities and the environment.

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Assessing Woodfuel Supply and Demand to Support Affected Populations in Protracted Crises

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rémi D'Annunzio, Yelena Finegold, Arturo Gianvenuti, Matieu Henry, Andreas Thulstrup, Pieter Van Lierop, Xia Zuzhang
Location: Ethiopia
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood

The objective of this article is to present a methodology for assessing woodfuel supply and demand, which was tested in Shimelba refugee camp in Ethiopia. The study aimed to determine the available biomass for fuel (supply) and the consumption at a given point in time (demand) and then calculate whether the rate at which wood harvesting exceeded wood re-growth in the camp. Results indicated that forests and shrubs represented 36 and 34% of land area in 2000 and 2013 respectively. Aboveground biomass was 150, 51 and 27 t ha-1 in closed forest, open forest and shrubland respectively. In total, 9,800 t was lost between 2000 and 2013. Through on-site interviews, it was possible to estimate that 12 kg day-1 of fuelwood was consumed by each household for cooking and 6,840 t was extracted yearly. The results from the demand and supply analysis are consistent with the spatial analysis. It has been estimated that between 527 and 1,818 ha would need to be planted to avoid further degradation.

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Food Security Cluster Assessment of Stove & Fuel Needs: Nepal Earthquake

Organizations: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Food Security Cluster (FSC), Nepal Food Security Monitoring System
Location: Nepal
Type: Research

An assessment of the cookstove and fuel needs in Nepal after the 2015 earthquake.

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Food Security Cluster Household Questionnaire: Nepal Earthquake

Organizations: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Food Security Cluster (FSC)
Location: Nepal
Type: Research

Rapid assessment questionnaire to assess the food security needs of those affected by the 2015 earthquakes in Nepal.

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Cooking in the Congo: A Technical Assessment

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence

This report aims to provide a better understanding of the current situation of the domestic energy sector in North Kivu – with a particular focus on cooking, and how it affects the lives of communities living there. It provides an overview and analysis of the most significant energy-related interventions that have taken place (making a distinction between urban and rural/IDP-oriented) in the areas of concern. The analysis of experiences and impacts will help to identify lessons and positive practices for improved programming. Finally, this report assesses different energy resources and provides recommendations for appropriate cooking technologies in this specific context.

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2014

Environment and Humanitarian Action: Increasing Effectiveness, Sustainability and Accountability

Organizations: Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU), ProAct Network, Groupe URD
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Livelihood

This study, commissioned by the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, with the financial support of the Government of Finland, is the first stage of a larger project that seeks to examine the current state of integration of environmental considerations in humanitarian operations and to recommend collective action to improve the effectiveness, accountability, and sustainability of humanitarian action. It examines some of the achievements to date and proposes—based on extensive consultations – how the future agenda might be defined. The study references the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group and its decision tree diagrams on factors affecting choice of fuel strategy in humanitarian settings and matrix on agency roles and responsibilities for ensuring a coordinated multisectoral fuel strategy in humanitarian settings.

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Technologizing Humanitarian Space: Darfur Advocacy and the Rape-Stove Panacea

Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Abdelnour
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence

This sociological research paper examines how fuel-efficient stoves came to be construed as an effective tool for reducing sexual violence globally.

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Cooking Fuel In and Around Nzulo and Shasha Displacement Sites

Organizations: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence

An assessment of the risks incurred when women and girls seek fuel for household energy needs, and of the decreased risk after the introduction of fuel-efficient stoves. The findings from this end-line assessment suggest that the exposure to risk of violence faced by the IDPs decreased after the introduction of fuel-efficient stoves. This reduction is primarily evidenced by fewer firewood collection trips and less time spent collecting firewood after the distribution of the fuel-efficient stoves and at the time of the end-line. In addition, participants reported that they were spending less money on buying firewood and were earning more money overall after receiving fuel-efficient stoves. While the introduction of fuel-efficient stoves created a number of positive outcomes, much more needs to be done to ensure the security and well-being of these communities. In particular, the lack of adequate food remains the main concern for people living in both the Nzulo and Shasha displacement sites.

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IOM Haiti - Waka Waka Lights Camp Survey

Organization: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Location: Haiti
Type: Research

In March 2014, IOM Haiti distributed a total of 1,155 Waka Waka lamps in 27 IDP camps throughout the greater metropolitan areas of Port-au-Prince, Petion-Ville, Delmas and Cite Soleil. These camps were selected based on a variety of actors such as threat of eviction, security issues, and evidently lack of electricity. In an effort to assess the impact of the Waka Waka lamps on the daily lives of the targeted IDP families, IOM teams carried out a brief survey a few weeks following the distribution.

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Lighting the way: The role of handheld solar lamps in improving women’s and girl’s perceptions of safety in two camps for internally displaced people in Haiti

Organization: International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Location: Haiti
Type: Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

A solar lamp distribution in post-earthquake Haiti provided a clean and popular alternative to traditional lighting sources but did not address the safety and security concerns of women and girls.

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Sustainable Energy Provision Among Displaced Populations: Policy and Practice

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Raffaella Bellanca
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

This report attempts to examine the factors that are inhibiting system-wide changes and the diffused uptake of sustainable energy solutions. The methodology of this study is outlined in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 explores the network of actors and initiatives present on the scene, and looks at their principal motives to action and efforts to date. This exercise reveals that a comprehensive approach to cover energy needs in humanitarian response is still some distance away and indicates where more attention could be devoted. Examples of projects on the ground are then employed in Chapter 4 to expose weaknesses affecting the sector, while promising and particularly innovative models are also highlighted. Chapter 5 seeks to identify underlying mechanisms causing the challenges encountered in the case studies. Findings are then discussed in the conclusions presented in Chapter 6.

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The Current State of Sustainable Energy Provision for Displaced Populations: An Analysis

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rebecca Gunning
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

This work forms part of the initial foundational research for the Moving Energy Initiative. The overall aim of the project is to increase access to appropriate sustainable energy among displaced people with a view to improving human security, building resilience, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation. This will be achieved through practical demonstration of sustainable energy solutions, reform of relevant humanitarian policies and practices, and through enhanced private sector engagement.

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Safe Access to Fuel and Energy: Rapid Assessment Report for Ruzizi DRC

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

A rapid assessment of current needs and challenges related to cooking fuel, protection risks, and environmental degradation in Ruzizi Plain, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

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Burundi: Environment, Too Often Neglected

Organization: Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster
Location: Burundi
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove

The environment is an extremely important, yet often neglected, aspect of managing a camp throughout its life-cycle. As it is a cross-sectorial issue, part of the challenge is that it is not clear which actor is ultimately responsible and accountable for monitoring and advocating for environmental issues. Consequently, they ‘fall through the cracks’. The Burundi refugee camps suffered in this regard as environmental aspects were not fully considered until several years after the establishment of the camps. This changed in 2007, when the government of Burundi specifically requested the camp management agency to reduce or find alternatives to the quantity of cooking firewood distributed for use by camp populations, as well as opening erosion ravines affecting host communities. Subsequently the camp management agency initiated a wider range of environmental activities.

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2013

Production of briquettes as an alternative energy source in Mugunga I, Mugunga III, Bulengo and Green Lake camps in DRC

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Comite De Rehabilitation Du Sinistre Dans Son Milieu (CRSM)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: Research

Report on production of 2 million biomass briquettes to be distributed to 5,500 IDP households located in the 4 camps around Goma town in DRC.

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Baseline Survey on Safe Access to and use of cooking energy in Nzulo Camp and the Surrounding villages in North, Kivu, DRC

Organizations: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

The North Kivu Province in eastern DRC is undergoing a violent conflict between the Congolese army and M23 militia. This has led to massive displacement of the population, and the creation of several internally displaced person (IDP) camps. The WRC & IRC undertook a baseline survey to assess the living conditions of IDPs in relation to their acquisition and use of cooking fuel and burden on host communities. The survey found that the primary source of fuel was firewood and women and children in particular face adverse risks relating to the collection and consumption of firewood. Recommendations have also been made to improve IDP's access to sustainable fuels and efficient cook stoves.

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WFP SAFE Project in Kenya: Project Summary Report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

This report briefly summarises WFP’s Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) project in Kenya.

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WFP SAFE Project in Kenya: Kakuma fuel efficient stoves and gender based violence study report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

This report focuses specifically on the impact of fuel efficient stoves and gender based violence sensitization on the exposure to risk of gender based violence during firewood collection for refugees and the host community in Kakuma, Kenya.

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WFP SAFE Project in Kenya: Controlled Cooking Tests Report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

A series of controlled cooking tests (CCTs) were undertaken at the Kakuma Refugee Camp in February 2013 to evaluate the performance of fuel-efficient stoves provided by the World Food Programme (WFP). The Kakuma Refugee Camp was an ideal location to conduct the CCTs as it provided the evaluators with an opportunity to collect information from three different groups – Somali and Sudanese refugees and the Turkana host community – each with different cultures, cooking practices, and cuisines.

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Empowering People- Report on Impacts

Organization: Endev
Location: Multiple
Type: Research
Keywords: Stove Distribution

In the following report, Endev summarizes the impacts they have accomplished to date through their energy service provision programs, including the provision of cookstoves. They have 5 main target areas: Reduced Poverty & Productive Use- Endev projects and partners have enabled 10.3 million people to gain access to energy. Gender- Endev projects have provided energy efficient fuels to make cooking easier and less time consuming for women and girls. Endev projects also provide lighting, thereby increasing the safety of women. Health - EnDev stove produce, on average emit 30 to 40 per cent less carbon monoxide and other pollutants that traditional stoves. Education- Endev projects have supported 6,400 schools to gain access to modern energy services. Environment & Climate- Endev stoves save up to 0.59 tonnes of CO2 equivalent each year.

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Impact Evaluation of Improved Stove Use in Burkina Faso – FAFASO

Organizations: International Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Author(s)/Editor(s): Gunther Benscha, Michael Grimmb, Katharina Petera, Jörg Petersa, Luca Tasciotti
Location: Burkina Faso
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

According to a WHO report (2009), approximately 16,500 people die every year from indoor air pollution caused by the fumes of biomass fuels in Burkina Faso. This does not include the huge number of people who experience various health issues due to indoor air pollution. In addition, wood fuel, a biomass fuel is a significant cause of deforestation in Burkina Fao. An initiative called for improved cook stoves (ICS) to be distributed to poor households in urban and rural areas. Improved cook stoves use less fuel and therefore decrease the consumption of wood fuel and reduce wood fuel collection. The following report is an impact evaluation of the last 3 years of the ICS initiative. A key finding of the report should that the use of the cookstove results in a susbtantial increase in fuel savings.

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2012

The Shelter Bulletin - Issue 03 - Light study in Somalia

Organization: Emergency Shelter/NFI Cluster, Somalia
Type: Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

The Shelter Cluster facilitated Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) on solar lighting, with IDPs in Hargeisa Somaliland. The aim of the discussions were to: 1) Assess the present situation of light provision in households within three IDP settlements; 2. Understand and correlate information on light provision and the areas where women feel most insecure within the settlement; and 3. Pre-test the suitability of four types of house hold solar lamps, especially for women, in the three settlements. Findings indicate that solar lighting systems play a crucial role in averting gender based violence within the settlements.

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Alternative Domestic Energy Options for Darfur: A Review

Organizations: ProAct Network, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

The Darfur Alternative Energy Project (DAEP) was one of three projects implemented by ProAct Network from December 2009 to March 2011 under the umbrella of the UNEP Sudan Integrated Environment Project (SIEP), an initiative funded by DfID. The main objective of the project was to undertake a review of the current situation, including an economic and policy analysis, with a view to identifying viable and appropriate alternative energy options that could reduce the consumption of fuelwood and charcoal and hence slow deforestation in Darfur. This review is based on extensive background research, consultations and field missions.

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A Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Rapid Assessment: Doro Refugee Camp, Upper Nile State, South Sudan

Organization: Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
Location: South Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence

The risk of being attacked when traveling outside the community has been identified as one of the most significant safety and security concerns faced by women and girls living in Doro. Incidents of SGBV do occur within the camp too, especially during the night time and at water points.

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2011

The GIZ Dadaab Household Energy Project

Organizations: ProAct Network, German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Gerald Chege Gitau
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

The overall objective of the UNHCR Environment Project being implemented by GIZ is to improve the living conditions of refugees and host community and promote collaboration between the two in conservation and rehabilitation of the environment in refugee hosting areas. GIZ is the lead Energy and Environment Implementing Partner of UNHCR in Dadaab.

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We Have No Choice: Safe Access to Firewood and Energy: Eastern Republic of Congo: Appraisal Report

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin Patrick
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

Following the launch of the SAFE guidance material in 2007 by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings, the SAFE partners have conducted several appraisals and surveys of refugee settlments and partner programs. This particular appraisal was collaborative effort by the WFP and WRC to look at existing energy access issues and the collective efforts to mitigate issues around the access to fuel and energy in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. This appraisal report looks at protection risks to women and children, health risks associated with the type of fuel used, environmental risks and any impact on livelihoods.

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Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy, WFP - North Darfur

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

This review presents the findings of an impact assessment and a technical review of the SAFE programme in North Darfur one year after implementation started. The SAFE programme in North Darfur is the first pilot implementation and as such the process of reviewing the SAFE programme is a first attempt at measuring the results and impacts of the programme. This will enable WFP to consolidate lessons learned, highlighting successes that may be replicable and challenges, providing guidance for further programming.

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Review of Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) Uganda

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Veronique Barbelet, Mariangela Bizzarri
Location: Uganda
Type: Research

This report summarizes the findings of a review of the implementation of the Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) project conducted in Karamoja (Uganda) in October 2011. The review stems from WFP’s continuous commitment to ensure safe access to cooking fuel to beneficiaries, with a special focus on displacement contexts and environmentally degraded areas. After almost two years since its beginning, the SAFE project in Karamoja brings about lessons that will significantly contribute to more effective and efficient implementation of the SAFE project globally.

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Enhancing Coping and Adaptation Capacity of the Coastal Community to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Change

Organization: Caritas Australia
Location: Bangladesh
Type: Research
Keywords: Climate Change, Livelihood

The following paper is a 2011 project update. The purpose of the project is to introduce various adapative practices in the local community in order to reduce the risk to climate change. The project was started in 2008 and covers 35 villages in Bangladesh. The initiatives address multi-sectoral issues live livlihood which are adversly affected by an increase in the unpredicabilyt of the environment. The project also has a advocacy component and works to influence environmental and livlihood policy at the local, regional and national level.

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Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) Project, Final evaluation report

Organizations: Austrian Development Corporation, CARE, European Commission
Author(s)/Editor(s): Athanase Munyampundu, Anicet Munyehirwe
Location: Rwanda
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Recommendations

The Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) project aims to provide efficient, sustainable and affordable energy fuels and energy related services in rural and per-urban Rwanda. The project will also provide income- generating activities in the energy services sector. The project aims to reduce biomass energy dependency by 50% in four districts of Nyamagabe, Nyaruguru, Gisagara and Huye. The final evaluation was conducted at the end of the project, and the key findings were complied in this final evaluation report. Some of the findings include that project was able to acheive several of its intended goals and was able to implement all the planned programs. There was variable success in some areas due to uptake of stoves, improper pricing of new stoves and adminstrative issues around some of the livlihood initiatives.

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2010

Fuel efficient stoves for Darfur: the social construction of subsistence marketplaces in post-conflict settings

Organization: Journal of Business Research
Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Abdelnour, O. Branzei
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

This paper explores the development of market roles and transactions in fuel-efficient stoves in Darfur from 1997 to 2008 as a grounded example of how subsistence markets are socially constructed in post-conflict settings. Using a combination of archival texts, interviews, and real-time discourses by protagonists, this study explains the who, what, why and how of emergent marketplaces by showing how development interventions come to imbue market participants and transactions with socially (re)constructed meanings.

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Evaluation of Manufactured Wood-Burning Stoves in Dadaab Refugee Camps, Kenya

Organization: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Location: Kenya
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the potential suitability of a new generation of manufactured biomass cooking stoves for refugee and Internally Displaced Person (IDP) environments as well as disaster relief situations. Berkeley Air Monitoring Group (Berkeley Air) was asked to combine rigorous quantitative stove performance testing using the Controlled Cooking Test protocol with as much qualitative assessment of the acceptability and usability of each stove as feasible during a time-limited visit to a refugee camp designated by USAID. At USAID’s request, UNHCR agreed to host and facilitate the stove performance testing at the Dadaab refugee camp, located in northeastern Kenya.

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Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Kenya: An Appraisal Report

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

Following the launch of the SAFE guidance material in 2007 by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings, the SAFE partners have conducted several appraisals and surveys of refugee settlements and partner programs. This particular appraisal was collaborative effort by the WFP and WRC to look at existing energy access issues and the collective efforts to mitigate issues around the access to fuel and energy in Dadaab, Kenya. This appraisal report looks at protection risks to women and children, health risks associated with the type of fuel used, environmental risks and any impact on livelihoods.

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Report of the WFP-UNHCR Joint Assessment Mission

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Location: Bangladesh
Type: Research

The Joint Assessment Mission comprising of representatives of UNHCR, WFP and the Government of Bangladesh conducted the mission from the 10th to the 17th of October 2004. The objectives of the mission were to carry out an assessment of food and non-food requirements of the ongoing operation, to focus on the underlying causes of persistently high malnutrition and to make specific recommendations on the potential to reduce dependency on food assistance, alleviation of causes of using food for other purposes, modalities of assistance, composition of the food basket and the duration of assistance.

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Cooking Fuel Needs in Haiti: A Rapid Assessment

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Haiti
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Women's Refugee Commission (WRC) and the World Food Program (WFP) worked together for the implementation of SAFE guidance into the Humanitarian efforts. They conducted a rapid assessment of SAFE to access the situation in Haiti and to provide recommendations. The following assessment identifies the most pressing issues in both rural and urban areas in Haiti and provides recommendations including a fuel strategy, a coordination strategy between all the various humanitarian actors and some medium to long term solutions to overcome the dependency on biomass fuels in the area.

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2009

Indoor air quality impacts of an improved wood stove in Ghana and an ethanol stove

Organization: Energy for Sustainable Development
Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Agbeve, S. Brant, F. Mengesha, D. Pennise, W. Quaye, W. Tadele, T. Wofchuck
Type: Research

This study was undertaken to assess the potential of two types of improved cookstoves to reduce indoor air pollution in African homes. An ethanol stove, the CleanCook, was tested in three locations in Ethiopia: the city of Addis Ababa and the Bonga and Kebribeyah Refugee Camps, while a wood-burning rocket stove, the Gyapa, was evaluated in Accra, Ghana. In both countries, kitchen concentrations of PM2.5 and CO, the two pollutants responsible for the bulk of the ill-health associated with indoor smoke, were monitored in a before and after study design without controls.

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Fuel Security and Supply Dynamics in Internally Displaced Persons’ Camps of Northern Uganda

Organization: The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance
Author(s)/Editor(s): Grace Kasirye Birikadde, Joy Clancy, Magi Matinga
Location: Uganda
Type: Research

This study aimed at examining the fuel supply mechanisms in Internally Displaced Persons’ (IDPs) camps of Northern Uganda. About 1.2 million IDPs in Northern Uganda have put a lot of stress on the wood resources (major source of fuel) resulting into forests depletion, making firewood scarce, expensive and not affordable by many IDPs. The conditions related to or resulting from cooking fuel scarcity have an impact on foodsecurity, health, environmental protection and, also enhance gender-based violence. Although fuel shortage impacts in camps are known, the fuel issues are rarely thought of by the government, NGOs and other relief agencies. The main objective of the study was therefore, to gain an insight into how fuel supply in the IDPs’ camps can be made reliable, secure and adequate.

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Household energy in refugee and IDP camps: challenges and solutions for UNHCR

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Eveliina Lyytinen
Location: Multiple
Type: Research

The aim of this paper is to identify the current key challenges that UNHCR faces at the operational level in relation to household energy in refugee and IDP camps. It also discusses the lessons learned in the search for sustainable solutions. While the operational level at refugee and IDP camps is the focus of this report, UNHCR’s household energy policy is also explored. In IDP situations UNHCR´s household energy policy is discussed in the context of the inter-agency response.

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Evaluation of the Process of Integration of ACF Kenya’s ECHO funded program in North Eastern Province, Kenya

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stephen McDowell, Paul Obura, Susan Wangai
Location: , Kenya
Type: Research
Keywords: Malnutrition

Action Against Hunger Kenya (ACH) implementing a multi-sectoral program to address issues related to the vulnerability and mortability risks to malnutrition in the north eastern province of Kenya. Indpendent consultants were brought to evalute the progress of this integrated program. The findings are presented in this report, and highlight areas where the program has been successful like the ability to deliver on set goals and areas where there could be improvement like integrating community and project targeting systems. The report also stated that the project's one-year cycles were too short and conterproductive.

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2008

Development and Testing of the Berkeley Darfur Stove

Organization: University of California-Berkeley
Author(s)/Editor(s): Susan Amrose, Ashok Gadgil, Charles Kirubi, G. Theodore Kisch, Jesse Woo
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

In November of 2005, a team of scientists from LBNL visited Darfur to assess the potential of fuel-efficient stoves (""FES"") as a means to mitigate the fuelwood shortage. In addition to conducting a systematic informal survey, the team found that a metal FES, known as the Tara, required 50% less fuelwood to cook an IDP meal than the inefficient three-stone-fire used by 90% of the IDPs. The LBNL team emerged from the trip recommending a metal FES based on the Tara, but with two specific design modifications to make it suitable for conditions in Darfur. These included improving the mechanical stability of the stove during vigorous stirring, and maintaining or improving performance during a breeze.

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Competing for Development: A Case Study of Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur

Organization: Richard Ivey School of Business
Author(s)/Editor(s): Samer Abdelnour, Oana Branzei
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

The following research paper is a comparative study into various fuel efficient cookstoves (FES) used in Darfur Sudan, in particular the paper focuses on the efficiency and uptake of the Berkley-Darfur stove.

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Project Gaia Nigeria Pilot Study Final Report Results of Project Gaia’s CleanCook Methanol Stove Pilot Study in Delta State, Nigeria

Organizations: Delta State Government, Stokes Consulting Group
Author(s)/Editor(s): Joe Obueh
Location: Nigeria
Type: Research

In February 2007, Project Gaia Research Studies, a research project facilitated in Nigeria by the Centre for Household Energy and Environment, Stokes Consulting Group and Dometic, with grants from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under its Partnership for Clean Indoor Air and Delta State, and support from the Delta State’s Ministry of Power and Energy launched the pilot testing of 150 methanol fueled CleanCook stoves in 150 randomly selected homes from the three senatorial districts of Delta State, Nigeria.

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Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) Project. A Baseline study Report

Organizations: CARE, European Commission, International Business Centre (IBC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Anicet Munyehirwe
Location: Rwanda
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Recommendations

The Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) project aims to provide efficient, sustainable and affordable energy fuels and energy related services in rural and per-urban Rwanda. The project will also provide income- generating activities in the energy services sector. The project aims to reduce biomass energy dependency by 50% in four districts of Nyamagabe, Nyaruguru, Gisagara and Huye. This baseline report is an evaluation of the current situation and will be used to establish performance metrics and performance goals for the CASE project.

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Assessing the effectiveness of fuel-efficient stove programming: a Darfur-wide review

Organization: ProAct Network
Author(s)/Editor(s): Eugene Cole, David Stone, Grant Wroe-Street
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

The following report is an evaluation assessment of the fuel-efficient stove initiative administered by CHF International in Darfur, Sudan. The objective of the assessment is to find out whether the FES initiative was meeting its intended outcomes. Proact found that while there were many positive results to the initiative include a strong uptake of certain types of stoves, there were several gaps , some of which include inadequate inter-agency coordination, weak knowledge management and lack of monitoring and evaluation programing.

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2007

Summary Evaluation Report of Fuel-Efficient Stoves in IDP Camps in Uganda

Organization: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Location: Uganda
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

OFDA enlisted the assistance of the USAID Energy Team to undertake a multi-phase evaluation in order to derive “best practices” for future FES interventions. While the primary purpose of this evaluation is to provide guidance to USAID-funded organizations, USAID hopes to inform the broader humanitarian community by sharing the results of the evaluation with them as well. Eventually, the best practices will be developed into a series of recommendations and toolkits for use by NGOs, donors, and other groups operating FES programs in IDP settings.

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Solar Cooker Project Evaluation: Iridimi Refugee Camp, Chad

Organization: Tchad Solaire
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brie Loskota
Location: Chad
Type: Research

In 2005, “CooKit” solar cookers were introduced in the Iridimi camp as part of an effort to reduce reliance on firewood and in turn improve the safety of the refugee women by lessening the need to leave the camp to collect wood. In October of 2007, a team of 15 people from eight organizations conducted an evaluation of solar cooking in the camp. The evaluation was undertaken over five days and included interviews with 121 refugees.

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Smoke, health and household energy

Organization: Practical Action
Author(s)/Editor(s): Liz Bates
Location: Multiple
Type: Research

The purpose of this research project is to support large numbers of people living in poverty, especially women and children, to reduce the major health risks caused by smoke from kitchen fires, through awareness of the dangers of smoke and interventions to alleviate it. Interventions, in the context of this publication, mean any activities or technologies introduced by the project to alleviate smoke. This publication describes a UK-Government funded research project done by ITDG in three very different communities under a Department for International Development (DFID) research grant. ITDG, an international NGO, has developed a framework to strengthen those living in poverty to work together, participating in all levels of the decision making process and leading to a sound redistribution and management of resources. Women in particular are supported through this approach. Ultimately, the process is intended to lead to a sustainable, commercially oriented approach and pro-poor policy action.

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Efficient Stoves for IDPs Protection and Environment Conservation Project

Organization: Sudanese Agency for Environment and Development Services, SAEDS
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ahmed Hassan Hood
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

OFDA enlisted the assistance of the USAID Energy Team to undertake a multi-phase evaluation in order to derive “best practices” for future FES interventions. While the primary purpose of this evaluation is to provide guidance to USAID-funded organizations, USAID hopes to inform the broader humanitarian community by sharing the results of the evaluation with other organizations. Eventually, the best practices will be developed into a series of recommendations and toolkits for use by NGOs, donors, and other groups operating FES programs in IDP settings.

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Tapping the Potential of Proalcool for the Household Energy Sector

Organization: Shell Foundation
Author(s)/Editor(s): Regina Couto
Location: Brazil
Type: Research

The Brazilian alcohol programme, focussing exclusively on the industrial-scale production of ethanol, has been successfully operating for more than thirty years. This article discusses how the same can be accomplished for cooking and household energy - a Proalcool movement for the household. Instead of relying on large scale ethanol production and distribution, the household energy market can be provided with ethanol from micro distilleries - a distributed rather than centralized energy model.

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Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring Summary for The Gaia Association CleanCook Stove Tests in the Kebribeyah Refugee Camp, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia

Organizations: Gaia Association, University of California-Berkeley
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

Under the guidance of the Center for Entrepreneurship in International Health and Development (CEIHD), Gaia Association has performed indoor air pollution (IAP) tests for the past year in homes in Addis Ababa and refugee camps throughout Ethiopia. IAP in refugee communities is a major concern, and the data collected from this study will aid in the mitigation of the negative effects of indoor smoke. CEIHD is assisting with the air quality measurements and equipment in pilot study homes and will use data generated by this study.

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Independent Evaluation of an Ongoing program 2007

Organization: AGEG Consultants
Author(s)/Editor(s): Detlef Loy, Jane Nimpamya, May Sengendo
Location: Uganda
Type: Research

GTZ GmbH appointed AGEG Consultants eG to carry out an independent evaluation of the “Energy Advisory Project” in Uganda. The evaluation was carried out by Detlef Loy (International Consultant) together with Mrs. May Sengendo and Mrs. Jane Nimpamya who acted as local consultants. The evaluation in-country took place between October 22nd and November 11th 2007 and comprised, in addition to consultation with GTZ team members, interviews with project partners and representatives of other agencies. These interviews were held in the national capital Kampala and in various other districts of the country in which the project is active. The interviews were supported by an appraisal of the project results.

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2006

Preparing for Scale up of Stoves and Ethanol

Organization: Project Gaia
Author(s)/Editor(s): Fiona Lambe
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

In 2005, Project Gaia introduced 130 CleanCook (CC) stoves to Kebrebeyah refugee camp, for the purpose of a three month pilot study. These stoves were placed in homes in the camp and the selected households were supplied with one 10-liter Gerry can of ethanol every 10 days during the study. The progress of these households was closely monitored by Project Gaia staff throughout the testing period and the study was conducted with the assistance and cooperation of the UNHCR and ARRA (Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs, FRDE).

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An Ethanol-fueled Household Energy Initiative in the Shimelba Refugee Camp, Tigray, Ethiopia: A Joint Study by the UNHCR and the Gaia Association

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Gaia Association
Author(s)/Editor(s): Amare G/Egziabher, James Murren, Cheryl O'Brien
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

Project Gaia (PG) and UNHCR piloted an alternative fuel cookstove in the Shimelba Refugee Camp in Ethiopia in order to reduce the dependency on firewood and reduce the need for firewood collection. The cookstove used was the CleanCookstove which ran on ethanol. An assessment 6 months into the pilot program showed a significant decrease in fuelwood collection and consumption. A decision was made to scale up the project, and the following report is an assessment of the pilot study and a strategy document to enable the expansion of the cookstove provision program.

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Finding Trees in the Desert: Firewood collection and alternatives in Darfur

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin Patrick
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

The Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children undertook a project looking at fuel alternatives that, if used in place of firewood, might help protect refugee and internally displaced women and girls.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls (English)

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In English) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This detailed report highlight some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls (Arabic)

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In Arabic) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This detailed report highlights some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Project Gaia’s Ethanol-fueled CleanCook Stove Initiative and its Impact on Traditional Cooking Fuels Used in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Organizations: Gaia Association, University of California-Berkeley
Author(s)/Editor(s): Milkyas Debebe, James Murren
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

Project Gaia (PG) embarked on an 18 month pilot study in Ethiopia investigating the marketability and consumer acceptance of the CleanCook (CC) stove and ethanol fuel in late 2004. Never before used as a kitchen energy fuel in Addis Ababa, liquid ethanol was made available to the project through an agreement with the state-owned Finchaa Sugar Company, one of four manufacturers in Ethiopia’s emerging sugar industry. With funding from the Shell Foundation’s Sustainable Energy Program to carry out the study, 850 CC stoves were purchased from Dometic, a Swedish company and world leader in alcohol appliances, to be used and tested throughout the country, with 500 stoves marked for Addis Ababa, and the remaining 350 in institutional settings, including UNHCR refugee camps.

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Impact Evaluation of the Use of Ethanol with the CleanCook Stove in the Kebribeyah Refugee Camp

Organizations: Ethiopian Rural Energy Development and Promotion Center, Ministry of Mines and Energy
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ephrem Hassen
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

A team of two experts from the EREDPC socio-economics department conducted a two-day household fuel consumption and stoves use survey to study the impact of Project Gaia's stoves and ethanol fuel project. The survey was conducted from 09 June to 10 June 1998 in the camp on 40 selected households which were already using ethanol with the CleanCook stove.

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2005

The Crushing Burden of Rape: Sexual Violence in Darfur

Organization: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) / Doctors Without Borders
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence

MSF is providing health care to more than 1.250.000 people in 25 locations in Darfur. It is from among the patients MSF treats that we receive alarming numbers of reports of rape. All the victims seen by MSF in clinics and hospitals report similar mechanisms of violence and persecution at the time of the assault.Women are usually assaulted while pursuing their daily activities essential to the livelihood of their household. As mentioned above, 82% of the rapes occur when women are outside populated villages/towns while searching for firewood or thatch, while working in their fields (sometimes in unoccupied destroyed villages), while fetching water in river beds or while travelling between villages to go the market or to retrieve their family’s belongings in a destroyed village.

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Fuel provision and gender-based violence: fuel-efficiency as a prevention strategy

Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Ziebell
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence

This document explores the link between women’s roles in the provision of fuel for the household and their vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV) in displaced settings. It argues that more needs to be known not only about the prevalence of GBV outside of camps, but also about the broader security impact of fuel-related violence within camps.

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Darfur Humanitarian Stove Project Assessment

Organization: Aprovecho Research Center
Author(s)/Editor(s): Matthew Langol, Daniel Wolf
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

The International Lifeline Fund and Aprovecho Research Center led a research mission in Darfur to look at fuel efficient stoves. The objective was to look at existing use of fuel efficient stove, suggest improvements and look to expand the fuel efficient stove programs to all refugee camps by using the most sustainable fuels and efficient stoves. The report details the current performance of the existing stoves, types of indigenous material used and the receptivity of the stoves by the local community. It also considers the limitations of fuel efficient stoves and the constraints in expanding the program including the difficultly in sourcing alternative fuels. The report concludes with recommendations to the humanitarian community working in Darfur, including the UN agencies, local governments and NGOs.

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1984

Energy Sector agreement- Assistance Program

Organizations: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

In November 1982, a World Bank mission visited Sudan to identify issues and options in the country's energy sector. The mission's findings and recommendations are outlined in a joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Assessment Report

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