All Resources

This resource library is intended to contain all research, project evaluations, toolkits, policies, and any other types of literature related to Safe Access to Fuel and Energy.

Documents displayed below are only those endorsed by the SAFE Steering Committee, but the search bar and “Advanced Search Options” feature allow you to access all SAFE-related documents within the database.

This resource library was created as part of an effort to enhance coordination of activities, encourage collaboration, and share knowledge between organizations working on SAFE. If you know of additional SAFE resources that are not shown here, please contact us at info@safefuelandenergy.org.

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Found 223 resources.

2017

Handbook for Biomass Cookstove Research, Design, and Development: A Practical Guide To Implementing Recent Advances

Organizations: MIT D-Lab, The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, UK aid
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines

This handbook presents insights and methodologies from recent biomass cookstove R&D programs at multiple institutions to achieve higher performance, lower cost, and improved usability. It will help cookstove designers and enterprises to integrate the latest R&D innovations into their products, as well as create a thriving market for cleaner, more efficient cookstoves and fuels.

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Consolidated Report: Inter-Agency Gender Assessment of Refugee Camps in Rwanda 2016

Organizations: Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugee Affairs (MIDIMAR), UN Women, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Location: Rwanda
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation

The report provides findings and recommendations from an inter-agency gender assessment launched in April 2016 of the six refugee camps in Rwanda. The assessment focuses on four thematic areas: Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM); Protection including child protection and gender-based violence (GBV); Education, health, cash and food assistance, livelihoods, shelter and non-food items (NFI); Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Refer to pages 69-70 for gender issue that arises from lack of access to safe energy.

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Nature and Faune (V 31 No 1): Building Resilience to Protracted Crises through Safe Access to Energy

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Indira Joshi, Andreas Thulstrup
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Livelihood

This excerpt from Nature & Faune Journal (Volume 31, Issue No. 1) by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN discusses the need to address fuel and energy issues when building the resilience of crisis affected populations. The full volume may be accessed at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7174e.pdf

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - May 2017

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes
Keywords: Fuel Wood, SAFE Projects

Minutes from the May 2017 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - April 2017

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the April 2017 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - March 2017

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the March 2017 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Webinar: Refugees and energy - Meeting the needs of refugees and displaced people

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Energy 4 Impact, GIZ, Border Green Energy Team (BGET), Sun Lite Solar
Location: Global, Myanmar
Type: SAFE Resources, Trainings & Workshops

As part of a series of webinars by Smart Villages and the Low Carbon Energy for Development Network (LCEDN), SAFE Working Group members Energy 4 Impact, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, and GIZ/EnDev joined the Border Green Energy Team (BGET) from Myanmar and Sun Lite Solar from India to discuss the energy needs of displaced people and refugees. The webinar is a good introduction to energy access in humanitarian settings generally, the role of the private sector, and to activities in the sector as of March 2017.

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Global Tracking Framework 2017

Organizations: Practical Action, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, World Food Programme (WFP), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), International Energy Agency (IEA), International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy (ENERGIA), Sustainable Energy for All (SEforAll), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO)
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

The third edition of the Global Tracking Framework (GTF) provides an evidence-based look at progress at the regional, country, and international level toward ensuring universal access to modern energy services, doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency. The report provides an overview of long-term trends since 1990 and focuses on progress achieved in the most recent period, 2012–14. The 2017 report incorporates references to energy and displaced people, specifically in Boxes 2.7 and 3.5.

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Solar Water Pumping Technical Hotline

Organization: International Organization on Migration (IOM)
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Power

As part of the Global Solar and Water Initiative, a technical hotline is being run through the email solarquery@iom.int. It intends to respond to any query related to solar pumping anywhere in the world within 3 days. It is open to all partners active in water provision (human or livestock consumption and irrigation) and it is supported by a team of experts drawn from NGO, UN, private sector and academia. As of 2017, the hotline has successfully responded to 77 different queries coming from UN agencies, Red Cross Societies, and NGOs working in Europe, Africa and Asia.



Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - January 2017

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the January 2017 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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SEAR Special Feature: Energy Access Building Resilience in Acute and Protracted Crises

Organizations: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Indira Joshi, Andreas Thulstrup
Location: Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Livelihood, SAFE Projects

While humanitarian responses have helped to save lives, it is widely acknowledged that they have not done enough to enable affected populations to withstand or absorb shocks and avert future crises. As a result, there is a growing consensus on the importance of building the resilience of people and their livelihoods. This special issue of the State of Electricity Access Report (SEAR) discusses the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)'s activities towards reducing risks and vulnerability at the household and community levels by improving access to sustainable energy. Specific reference to work in

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Comparative Analysis of Fuels for Cooking: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts and Economic and Social Considerations

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Eastern Research Group
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Livelihood

This study aims to provide an understanding of the tradeoffs between fuel options and environmental impacts across the value chain (from production through use), and to provide a guide to inform decisions regarding fuel choices for programs and investors. It is meant to aid cookstove and fuel stakeholders to identify and prioritize opportunities, to remove barriers, and increase efficiency across the fuel supply chain while also increasing awareness of environmental, economic and gender and livelihood impacts of various fuel types. The study is a companion to the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves' Fuel Analysis, Comparison & Integration Tool (FACIT).

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Fuel Analysis, Comparison & Integration Tool (FACIT)

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Livelihood

Fuel Analysis, Comparison & Integration Tool (FACIT) was developed to enable stakeholders to manually change parameters – such as fuel type, country, and indicators – to compare trade-offs of different cooking fuels and to isolate the steps in fuel production that have the largest impacts. FACIT gives enterprises insights to make improvements along the fuel value chain and allows donors and investors to make more informed investment and project choices. Local and national governments can use FACIT to guide policy decisions, and researchers can use it to identify opportunities to improve fuel technologies and performance. The report and tool include economic and social indicators that provide considerations to weigh when evaluating fuel choices.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - February 2017

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the February 2017 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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2016

Boiling Point Issue 68: Energy in Emergency Settings

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Mercy Corps, Chatham House, GIZ, Household Energy Network (HEDON)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Katherine Arnold, Corinne Hart, Karima Hirji , et al.
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Lighting, Lighting Distribution, SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations, Stove Distribution

In collaboration with Guest Editors, The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, and supported by The University of Nottingham, UNHCR, GIZ, MercyCorps and Chatham House, Issue 68 of Boiling Point Magazine, published in 2016 on several aspects of energy access in emergency settings, including safety, market distribution, gender issues, cooking, and lighting.

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Energy Services for Refugees and Displaced people

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): William Blyth, Glada Lahn, Johanna Lehne , et al.
Type: Research

This paper, which summarises the modelling work done during the first phase of the Moving Energy Initiative, aims to bridge the gap in the literature and inform future analysis on energy access for refugees and displaced people. Through an end-use accounting model for energy consumption for cooking and lighting by displaced populations, the research finds that as many as 7 million displaced people in camps have access to electricity for less than 4 hours a day and that the widespread introduction of improved cookstoves and basic solar lanterns could save $303 million a year in fuel costs after an initial capital investment of $334 million.

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Supply and Delivery of Portable Metallic Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) for Earthquake Victims

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal
Keywords: Stove Distribution

The Government of Nepal, Ministry of Population and Environment, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) released this tender on December 8, 2016. It invites bids for the supply and delivery of portable metallic improved cooking stoves (ICS) for earthquake victims in 14 districts (Bhaktapur, Dhading, Dolakha, Gorkha, Kathmandu, Kavrepalanchowk, Lalitpur, Makawanpur, Nuwakot, Okhaldhunga, Ramechhap, Rasuwa, Sindhuli and Sindhupalchowk) Districts.

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Factsheet: Guide to Cookstove Technologies and Fuels

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

This fact sheet from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves provides a high-level overview of available fuel types and cooking technologies, with attention to a range of designs and performances. This variety reflects the differing economic factors, sociocultural factors, and energy requirements relevant to users around the world. The sheet also introduces two Alliance tools - FACIT and the Clean Cooking Catalogue, which can aid practitioners further in choosing appropriate fuels and technologies for their specific contexts.

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Measuring Social Impact in the Clean Cooking Sector

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

This comprehensive toolkit allows cookstove and fuel enterprises (as well as project managers) to measure how their products empower women and create social change. Developed over two years of thorough research, testing, and evaluation, the “Measuring Social Impact in the Clean and Efficient Cooking Sector: A How-To Guide” uses common language and agreed upon indicators to guide organizations seeking to better understand the benefits they deliver to consumers. Although not specifically designed for humanitarian settings, the toolkit can easily be adapted to this context.

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Technical Specification: Supply of Fuel Efficient Cookstoves for UNHCR Persons of Concern Worldwide

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Berkeley Air Monitoring Group
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution, Stove Manufacturing

In an effort to ensure that cookstoves could be quickly and easily procured for humanitarian settings while still ensuring a minimum level quality, UNHCR, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, and the Berkeley Air Monitoring Group developed the specifications in this document for cookstove manufacturers wishing to supply cookstoves to UNHCR. The first request for proposals was published in September, 2016: https://www.ungm.org/Public/Notice/49446

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Cookstove Field Monitoring Technologies: Latest Advances and FAQs (Webinar)

Organizations: Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, Nextleaf Analytics, SweetSense Inc, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Winrock
Type: Tools & Guidelines

Field monitoring technologies for cookstoves cover a range of diverse monitoring needs from health and climate monitoring to usage and adoption. They can help you better understand your impacts, and adapt and strengthen your strategies to better meet the needs of customers and donors. They’re also valuable tools for growing sector knowledge around field use and impacts. Significant advances have been made since EPA and Winrock first covered the topic in a webinar 3 years ago. This webinar featured Tara Ramanathan from Nexleaf Analytics, Michael Johnson from Berkeley Air Monitoring Group and Dexter Gauntlett from SweetSense Inc, discussing the latest advancements in field monitoring technologies, and some examples and case studies of their use in the field to inform programs and business development. It also included a discussion of Frequently Asked Questions that were solicited from the webinar registrants in advance.

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Global Gender and Environment Outlook: The Critical Issues

Organization: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Gender-based violence

This report provides an overview of evidence and policy recommendations regarding the intersection of gender and environment. It argues that gender and environment approaches are critical for sustainable, equitable, and fair management of the planet’s natural resources and ecosystem. The report specifically calls out access to energy (and food, water, and sanitation) as a priority issue because women tend to be the primary managers of these resources in developing countries.

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UNHCR Emergency Handbook: Energy and Environment - Camps

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: SAFE Recommendations

This document forms part of the 4th edition of the UNHCR Emergency Handbook (full version available at https://emergency.unhcr.org/). It provides key recommendations and actions to ensure potential environmental risks and energy challenges are addressed in preparedness planning.

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Opportunities for LPG Use in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: World LPG Association (WLPGA)
Location: Global, Japan, Sudan, India, New Zealand
Type: Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

A WLPGA report that addresses one of the most challenging situations that the world is facing today -- the issue of displaced populations. The document is seen as a first step towards securing partnerships between the LPG industry and the organisations involved in managing these humanitarian settings, with the aim of replacing traditional fuels with LPG.

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The Energy Situation in the Dadaab Refugee Camps, Kenya

Organizations: Practical Action, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Chatham House, Energy 4 Impact
Author(s)/Editor(s): Stephen Okello
Location: Kenya
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

As part of initial research intended to inform subsequent phases of the project, the Moving Energy InitiativeIcarried out an energy survey in 2015 in the Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya. This paper's purpose is to present the results from the 2015 field study. The paper is a summary of the survey report – the whole report can be obtained on request from GVEP International (Energy4Impact)

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The Energy Situation in Goudoubo Refugee Camp, Burkina Faso

Organizations: Practical Action, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Chatham House, Energy 4 Impact, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mattia Vianello
Location: Burkina Faso
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

This paper, one of a series developed by the Moving Energy Initiative consortium partners. Its purpose is to present the results from a field study carried out in 2015 on the energy situation in the Goudoubo refugee camp in Burkina Faso. The paper is a summary of the survey report, which can be obtained on request from Practical Action Consulting (Mattia.Vianello@practicalaction.org.uk).

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Private-Sector Engagement: The Key to Efficient, Effective Energy Access for Refugees

Organizations: Practical Action, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Chatham House, Energy 4 Impact, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lindsay van Landeghem
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: SAFE Recommendations

This paper is one of a series of ‘toolkits’ developed by MEI partners. It offers guidance on the effective and efficient involvement of private-sector actors in providing energy solutions in forced displacement settings. It is aimed at implementers of energy interventions, and at policy decision-makers who identify priority needs and develop humanitarian budgets.

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A Review of Cooking Systems for Humanitarian Settings: Toolkit for the Moving Energy Initiative

Organizations: Practical Action, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Chatham House, Energy 4 Impact, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mattia Vianello
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

This paper is one of a series of ‘toolkits’ developed by the Moving Energy Initiative (MEI) partners. It is aimed at decision-makers at the policy level who identify priority needs and develop humanitarian budgets, and should be read in conjunction with other publications in the MEI series. The paper first outlines the types of improved cooking systems available and experiences in their promotion (Sections 2 and 3). Section 4 addresses the unique features of the humanitarian setting, and Section 5 outlines potential approaches to situation assessment and the design of a response package.

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Reaching Refugee Survivors of Gender-Based Violence: Evaluation of a Mobile Approach to Service Delivery in Lebanon

Organizations: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Pamela Lilleston , et al.
Location: Lebanon
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Lighting

In October 2014, the International Rescue Committee (IRC)’s Women’s Protection and Empowerment Lebanon program began implementing an innovative mobile approach to gender-based violence response and mitigation service delivery in Akkar district. The IRC’s approach aims to reach non-camp based Syrian refugee women living within Lebanese communities with GBV case management and psychosocial support services. The report notes that the risk of of non-partner sexual and physical violence such as rape and physical assault was most pronounced for women and girls living in insecure housing contexts where there was a lack of street lighting. (Pg 13-14)

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Harnessing the Power of Data for Girls: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead to 2030

Organization: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence

Harnessing the Power of Data for Girls: Taking stock and looking ahead to 2030 includes the first global estimates on the time girls spend doing household chores such as cooking, cleaning, caring for family members and collecting water and firewood. Tasks such as gathering water or firewood can also put young girls at increased risk of sexual violence. In countries with available data on chores by type, the second most commonly performed task among girls this age is shopping for the household (50 per cent), followed by fetching water or firewood (46 per cent).

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Evidence Brief: What Works to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict and Humanitarian Settings?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Diana Arango, Manuel Contreras, Mary Ellsberg, Amber Hill, Mairi MacRae, Maureen Murphy
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence

This brief provides a succinct overview of the existing evidence on the prevalence of violence against women and girls (VAWG) and on promising and emerging practices that prevent and respond to VAWG in conflict and humanitarian settings, summarising recent systematic and literature reviews in this field. It includes information on interventions involving both refugees and internally displaced populations (IDPs) affected by conflict, as well as other groups of women and girls who have been affected by natural disasters and/or severe food insecurity. Firewood distribution and fuel alternative programmes is discussed as a promising intervention.

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Meeting Fuel and Energy Needs in Protracted Crises

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, Malnutrition, SAFE Projects

This guidance note draws on FAO experience and lessons learned to support FAO staff and strategic partners in addressing energy access as part of food and nutrition security interventions in situations of protracted crisis. Its purpose is to contribute to the implementation of the Committee on World Food Security Framework for Action principles, and it demonstrates that understanding and responding to fuel and energy needs and related risks are critical for effective and sustainable food and nutrition security interventions in protracted crises.

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Forests and Access to Energy in the Context of Climate Change: the Role of the Woodfuel Sector in Selected INDCs in sub-Saharan Africa

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jonas Bervoets, Fritjof Boerstler, Marc Dumas-Johansen, Andreas Thulstrup, Xia Zuzhang
Location: Sub-Saharan Africa
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Livelihood

This article examines the importance of the wood energy sector in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the degree to which the sustainability of the sector is prioritized in the formulation of climate change policies. In these countries, per capita consumption of woodfuels is higher than the global average. More specifically, the article analyses the extent to which the wood energy sector is reflected in selected countries’ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change under the specific adaptation and mitigation priorities and targets.

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WFP SAFE Factsheet 2016

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, Livelihood, Malnutrition, SAFE Projects

An overview of WFP’s SAFE initiative which adopts a multi-faceted approach to meet the energy needs of displaced people worldwide through sustainable energy-related activities, protecting both people and the environment.

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Safe Access to Fuel and Energy in Burundi - An Appraisal Report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Burundi
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, Livelihood, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations

An overview of cooking energy needs and risks associated with the lack of energy access in Burundi. This feasibility report looks at the potential for inclusion of SAFE (Safe Access to Fuel and Energy) activities in WFP interventions in Burundi.

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SAFE Burundi Factsheet 2016

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Burundi
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, Livelihood

Country specific factsheet for SAFE (Safe Access to Fuel and Energy) interventions in Burundi. The factsheet provides an overview of the energy challenges in Burundi and the anticipated SAFE activities to address the energy access concerns and risks.

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WFP SAFE Infographic

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Livelihood, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects

How many WFP country offices expressed energy-related concerns in 2015? This infographic summarizes WFP's SAFE/Cookstoves Survey, including an overview of cooking energy needs, types of activities, and challenges in WFP country offices worldwide.

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International Lifeline Fund Burundi and WFP Institutional & Household Stove Project

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), International Lifeline Fund (ILF)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Alison Filler, Vahid Jahangiri
Location: Burundi, Uganda, Haiti, USA
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

This document presents a project report between World Food Program and International Lifeline Fund in Burundi. The project involves building Institutional and Household stoves for schools and targeted communities in Burundi. ILF provided technical support to WFP partners in construction and project implementation.

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Refugees and Energy Resilience in Jordan

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Owen Grafham, Glada Lahn, Adel Elsayed Sparr
Location: Jordan
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Power, SAFE Recommendations

This paper aims to highlight some of the projects that are attempting to overcome water and energy challenges, which have emerged –and deepened –in the wake of the Syrian refugee crisis. It is based on a summary that reflects the challenges and solutions that participants discussed during the workshop, and also builds on an internal background paper presented in advance of the same workshop.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - July 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the July 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) Toolbox: Woodfuel Assessment in Displacement Settings

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rémi D'Annunzio, Arturo Gianvenuti, Matieu Henry, Andreas Thulstrup
Location: Global
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects

This user guide describes how to use FAO's Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) Toolbox: Woodfuel Assessment in Displacement Settings for supporting field-based actors who are directly involved in the management of natural resources and protection of crisis-affected populations. This tool provides guidance for assessing, monitoring and planning energy-related interventions. The SAFE Toolbox is an Excel-based application, which supports the systematic collection and analysis of multi-sectoral field data on energy needs, woodfuel resources and associated risks and challenges faced by people in displacement settings. The SAFE Toolbox is intended to support the identification of the baseline situation in which no intervention to address the energy needs of displaced and host communities has been carried out. The tool can be used to establish the baseline setting and to develop alternative scenarios to compare against the baseline.

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Assessing Woodfuel Supply and Demand in Displacement Settings: A Technical Handbook

Organizations: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rémi D'Annunzio, Arturo Gianvenuti, Matieu Henry, Andreas Thulstrup
Location: Global
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove

The objective of this manual is to present a methodology for assessing woodfuel supply and demand in displacement settings. It uses a multi-sectoral approach to address the energy needs and associated challenges of displaced people. The first part of the manual presents a methodology for assessing demand for woodfuel, which is structured around four sequential steps. Each step provides explanations and the means to collect data and information, based on the specific targeted area and population. The second part of the manual describes the methodology for assessing the woodfuel supply of the targeted area, based on a combination of field measurements and temporal change analysis of satellite imagery for the different land cover classes that provide woody biomass. The manual also presents a methodology for integrating demand and supply assessments into informed decision making for monitoring, evaluating and planning purposes in the targeted area.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - February 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the February 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - March 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the March 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - January 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the January 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - June 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the June 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - May 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the May 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group

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Minutes: SAFE Humanitarian Working Group - April 2016

Type: SAFE Resources, Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the April 2016 monthly meeting of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group.

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GIZ - Energy Access for Refugees and Host Communities

Organization: GIZ
Location: Worldwide
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Heating, Indoor Air Pollution, Lighting, Lighting Distribution, Lighting Manufacturing, Livelihood, Malnutrition, Power, Stove Distribution, Stove Manufacturing

GIZ contributes to the improvement of access to energy (cooking, heating and electricity) in almost 30 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This factsheet gives an overview of a selection of approaches.

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Cooking Innovations in Humanitarian Settings

Organizations: Project Gaia, Gaia Association, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), (B)energy, Carbon Clear Limited, Horn of Africa Regional Environment Centre and Network (HOAREC), Oxfam South Sudan, Practical Action, Women's Development Association Network (WDAN)
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Projects, Stove Distribution

This publication provides a snapshot of available technologies, existing projects, and current knowledge on implementing cooking interventions in humanitarian settings. It profiles two fully scaled cooking projects that have changed the lives of refugees and IDPs in Ethiopia and Sudan, and features several innovations – fuels, cooking technology, and distribution models – that have the potential to benefit more crisis-affected people with further research, funding, and field testing.

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Environment and Humanitarian Action: Country Study - Nepal

Organization: UN Environment/OCHA Joint Unit (JEU)
Location: Nepal
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, SAFE Recommendations

The Nepal Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Joint Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. In July 2015, OCHA and UNEP undertook a ten day mission to Nepal to better understand environmental mainstreaming in a rapid onset emergency and provide guidance and advice to humanitarian actors on how to improve mainstreaming efforts. The report recommends integrating energy sector into humanitarian response architecture and references the work of WFP and the SAFE Working Group to coordinate energy aid response in the 2015 earthquake.

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Environment and Humanitarian Action: Country Study - Afghanistan

Organization: UN Environment/OCHA Joint Unit (JEU)
Location: Afghanistan
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Lighting, SAFE Recommendations

The Afghanistan Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. The study provides guidance and advice to humanitarian actors on how to improve environmental mainstreaming in a protracted crisis. It recommends incorporating energy considerations into emergency preparedness and response, referencing efficient cookstoves and solar technology.

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#EnergyMatters Infographic

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, Livelihood

As part of the SAFE Working Group's #energymatters campaign around the World Humanitarian Summit, the Alliance created this info graphic to help raise awareness among Summit participants and on social media about how crucial energy access is for crisis-affected people.

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Prosopis: An Alternative Fuel Resource for Refugees and Host Communities in Dadaab, Kenya

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Megan Gerrard, Anna Myers
Location: Kenya
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations, Stove Distribution

To inform the World Food Programme's Prosopis briquette production and distribution project in Dadaab the Women's Refugee Commission undertook descriptive research, which found Prosopis has great potential to be an alternative fuel resource for both refugees and host communities, but there are numerous challenges that require careful consideration, further research, and technical expertise, as well as extensive consultation and collaboration among stakeholders.

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#EnergyMatters Social Media Toolkit

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines

The Alliance created this social media toolkit on behalf of the SAFE Working Group as part of an effort to increase the inclusion of energy access as a key topic at the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit. It includes guidelines and sample materials for partners to post on their own social media feeds.

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SET4food: Report on Outputs

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Fondazione Politecnico di Milano, Politecnico di Milano
Location: Lebanon, Haiti, Central African Republic, Somalia
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects
Projects: SET4food Pilot Project (CAR), SET4food Pilot Project (Haiti), SET4food Pilot Project (Lebanon), SET4food Pilot Project (Somalia)

The Sustainable Energy Technologies for Food Utilization (SET4food) initiative aimed to to enhance the response capacity of humanitarian actors in identifying and implementing efficient and sustainable energy technologies for food utilization. This report describes the outcomes of four pilot projects in which all the activities aimed to make energy utilization in camps and informal settlements more efficient and sustainable. The project’s beneficiaries were humanitarian actors – including both operators and organizations – in order to make them more effective to support food security among displaced people.

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AEPC Amendment & Extension Notice for Supply and Delivery of Portable Improved Cookstoves, SHS, and Solar Power Systems

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal
Keywords: Power, Stove Distribution

The Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) / National Rural and Renewable Energy Programme (NRREP) of Nepal decided to amend bidding documents and extend submission deadlines for the following tenders: Supply and Delivery of Solar Home Sysyem (SHS/Tuki) for Earthquake Affected Victims; Supply and Delivery of Portable Metallic Improved Cooking Stove for Earthquake Victims; and Supply, Delivery and Installaiton of Insitutional Solar PV System (ISPS) at Public Institutions in Earthquake Affected Areas

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Monitoring Report - Darfur Efficient Cook-stove Project

Organizations: Carbon Clear Limited, Practical Action
Location: Sudan
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, Stove Distribution
Projects: Darfur Low-Smoke Stoves

This comprehensive project monitoring report describes the impacts of the Darfur Efficient Cook-Stoves project (a.k.a Darfur Low Smoke Stoves Project) in El Fashir town in Sudan, in which Carbon Clear Ltd and Practical Action coordinated the provision of LPG and stoves to residents and IDPs. It includes a summary of results from kitchen surveys, kitchen tests, usage surveys, leakage assessments, water boiling tests, and more - as well as the estimated amount of GHG emission reductions from the project using Gold Standard methodology.

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Coordinating Energy Access in Emergencies: A Case Study on the Nepal Earthquake

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Location: Nepal
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Lighting Distribution, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, Stove Distribution

In response to the massive 7.8 magnitude earthquake that struck Nepal in April 2015, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, in its role as Co-Chair of the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group, coordinated efforts among humanitarian response agencies, community-based organizations, international NGOs, private companies, and the Government of Nepal to assess energy needs and respond accordingly with distributions of solar lamps, fuel efficient cookstoves, off-grid power systems, mobile charging units, and other critical energy supplies to earthquake survivors. A total of 86,147 products were delivered by the organizations who participated in the coordination. This case study describes the coordination process, its long term outcomes, and several tools that facilitates response.

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Energy Access: Humanitarian Relief

Organizations: CARE, Centre for Alternative Technology, Engineers Without Borders UK
Author(s)/Editor(s): Peter Thomas
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Lighting

The main aim of this research is to understand if energy access interventions within humanitarian relief are an effective way of improving the health, safety and livelihoods of beneficiaries, while also having wider environmental benefits including, the reduction of CO2 emissions. The key findings are that modern energy access technologies such as solar lanterns provide significant benefits to beneficiaries. In particular there are positive impacts associated with improvements in indoor air quality and the removal of risks associated with fire. The research suggests interventions also have positive impacts on the perceptions of sexual- and gender-based violence (SGBV), education and livelihoods. However, the research also highlights a discrepancy between the reported levels of CO2 emissions following solar lantern distributions compared to actual, life cycle emissions.

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Factsheet: Energy Access in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

This fact sheet by the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves introduces the concept of humanitarian energy access, with emphasis on its impacts for the health, safety, and wellbeing of crisis-affected people, particularly women and girls.

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Cooking in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Gender-based violence

This fact sheet from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves describes the diverse challenges experienced by crisis affected people in accessing energy for cooking, including health risks, sexual and gender based violence, and negative impacts on livelihoods. The Alliance describes the 6-pillar strategy of its targeted humanitarian program for addressing these challenges, with a goal of reaching reaching 5 million people with access to cleaner, more efficient cooking solutions in humanitarian contexts by 2017.

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2015

Poster - How to Make Fire-Fuel Briquettes: Step-by-Step (Arabic)

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Livelihood, SAFE Projects

This poster was developed as part of WFP's SAFE programme in Darfur, and can be used to support briquette training activities. It shows the different steps involved in the production of fire-fuel briquettes which can be used to cook on fuel-efficient cookstoves.

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Poster - How to Make Fire-Fuel Briquettes: Step-by-Step (English)

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Livelihood, SAFE Projects

This poster was developed as part of WFP's SAFE programme in Darfur, and can be used to support briquette training activities. It shows the different steps involved in the production of fire-fuel briquettes which can be used to cook on fuel-efficient cookstoves.

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Poster - How to Make Fuel-Efficient Stoves: Step-by-Step (Arabic)

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Indoor Air Pollution, Livelihood, SAFE Projects, Stove Manufacturing

This poster was developed as part of WFP's SAFE programme in Darfur and can be used to support stove training activities. It shows the different steps involved in the production of fuel-efficient cookstoves, which can be used to cook with fire-fuel briquettes and firewood. The stoves can be made in a few simple steps by using locally-available clay, animal waste, water and bricks.

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Poster - How to Make Fuel-Efficient Stoves: Step-by-Step (English)

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Indoor Air Pollution, Livelihood, SAFE Projects, Stove Manufacturing

This poster was developed as part of WFP's SAFE programme in Darfur and can be used to support stove training activities. It shows the different steps involved in the production of fuel-efficient cookstoves, which can be used to cook with fire-fuel briquettes and firewood. The stoves can be made in a few simple steps by using locally-available clay, animal waste, water and bricks.

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Biomass and Liquid Fuel Cookstoves for UNHCR: Procurement Specifications, Testing Criteria, and Methodologies

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Berkeley Air Monitoring Group
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines

With support from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and the Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, UNHCR developed technical specifications for improved cooking technologies to be procured for its humanitarian response operations. This document was used to support the development of the final specifications, which were published as part of a UN tender in September 2016.

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WFP Cookstoves Survey: A Review of WFP's Cookstove and SAFE Initiatives

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, Stove Distribution

An overview of cooking energy needs and challenges plus SAFE (Safe Access to Fuel and Energy) and cookstoves interventions in WFP country offices worldwide.

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Cooking Up Change in Sudan

Organization: Carbon Clear Limited
Location: Sudan
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, SAFE Projects
Projects: Darfur Low-Smoke Stoves

Carbon Clear, in partnership with charity Practical Action has developed a project funded by corporate organisations that helps families in Darfur, Sudan buy new, cleaner low smoke cookstoves. This info-graphic summarizes key facts and figures from the project.

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AEPC Tender for Supply & Delivery of Improved Cookstoves for Earthquake Victims

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal

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Provision of Safe and Clean Household Energy in Refugee Camps of Benishangul-Gumuz Region

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Gaia Association
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, Stove Distribution

This sub-project monitoring report (SPRM) from the Gaia Association to UNHCR, dated December 31, 2015, provides an overview, summary of impacts, and data from Gaia's Safe and Clean Household Energy Refugee Assistance Program in Eastern Ethiopia, the aim of which was to provide Dometic CleanCook stoves and ethanol fuel to refugees. The report covers the project's efforts in three refugee camps in Asosa (Tongo, Bambasi, and Sherkole).

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Energy Access in Humanitarian Settings: Nepal Earthquake (Presentation)

Organization: Gham Power
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sandeep Giri
Location: Nepal
Type: Trainings & Workshops
Keywords: Lighting Distribution, Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects

Sandeep Giri, CEO of Gham Power, gave this presentation in a webinar titled "Energy Access in Humanitarian Settings: Examples from Recent Crises" (also available in the Resources library), hosted by the Clean Energy Solutions Center on June 23, 2015. It describes Gham Power's energy response activities to the Nepal earthquake in 2015, including lessons learned via Gham Power’s live map showing all incoming requests for relief specific to power and electricity, and illustrating where work is being done to coordinate solar companies and relief agencies. The webinar recording can be viewed at https://cleanenergysolutions.org/training/energy-access-humanitarian-settings.

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Quick Relief, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Package for Earthquake Victims in Nepal (Presentation)

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Dinesh Tripathee
Location: Nepal
Type: Trainings & Workshops
Keywords: SAFE Projects

Dinesh Tripathee, Engineer at the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Government of Nepal, gave this presentation in a webinar titled "Energy Access in Humanitarian Settings: Examples from Recent Crises" (also available in the Resources library), hosted by the Clean Energy Solutions Center on June 23, 2015. It introduces AEPC and describes its energy response activities to the Nepal earthquake in 2015. The webinar recording can be viewed at https://cleanenergysolutions.org/training/energy-access-humanitarian-settings.

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Energy Access in Humanitarian Settings: Examples from Recent Crises (Webinar)

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), UNF Energy & Climate, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC), Gham Power
Location: South Sudan, Nepal
Type: Trainings & Workshops
Keywords: Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations

This webinar, hosted by the Clean Energy Solutions Center on June 23, 2015, highlights the role that sustainable decentralized energy solutions can play in humanitarian settings, focusing specifically on the 2015 Nepal earthquake. The speakers discuss quality approaches and share lessons learned and best practices for settings in need of aid-based approaches where the local market may be disrupted or indefinitely suspended, at least in the short term.

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Relief Request Map for the Nepal Earthquake

Organization: Gham Power
Location: Nepal
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Lighting, Power

Gham Power created this map of solar lighting and power needs under its Rebuild with Sun initiative to help coordinate response to Nepal Earthquake victims

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Provision of Clean and Safe Household Energy to RAS from Somalia in Eastern Ethiopia

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Gaia Association
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Project report/evaluation, SAFE Projects, Stove Distribution

This sub-project monitoring report (SPRM) from the Gaia Association to UNHCR, dated October 12, 2015, provides an overview, summary of impacts, and data from Gaia's Safe and Clean Household Energy Refugee Assistance Program in Eastern Ethiopia, the aim of which was to provide Dometic CleanCook stoves and ethanol fuel to refugees. The report covers the project's efforts in three refugee camps in Jijiga (Kebribeyah, Awbere, and Sheder).

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Manuel d’Utilisation du Système d'Aide à la Décision (DSS) Set4food [Français]

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Politecnico di Milano
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacopo Barbieri, Emanuela Colombo, Fabrizio Leonforte, Fabio Riva
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Lighting, Power, SAFE Recommendations

Ce manuel prend en charge l'utilisation du système d'aide à la décision (en anglais: Decision Support System - DSS) disponible sur www.set4food.org. Le DSS est un logiciel en ligne qui aident à identifier les technologies de l'énergie potentiellement appropriées pour une utilisation alimentaire, étant donné un certain contexte de personnes déplacement. Les cinq modules disponibles portent sur: 1) la cuisson des aliments; 2) la conservation des aliments; 3) la production d'électricité; 4) pompage de l'eau; et 5) traitement de l'eau. Le manuel est également disponible en anglais et en espagnol.

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Manual de Uso del Sistema de Ayuda a la Decisión (DSS) para Set4food [Español]

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Politecnico di Milano
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacopo Barbieri, Emanuela Colombo, Fabrizio Leonforte, Fabio Riva
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Lighting, Power, SAFE Recommendations

Este manual es compatible con el uso del Sistema de Ayuda a la Decisión (DSS) disponible en www.set4food.org. El DSS es un software en línea que ayudan a identificar las tecnologías de energía potencialmente apropiadas para la utilización de los alimentos, dado un cierto contexto de la gente de desplazamiento. Los cinco módulos disponibles refieren a: 1) la cocción de los alimentos; 2) la conservación de los alimentos; 3) la generación de energía; 4) el bombeo de agua; y 5) el tratamiento de agua. El manual también está disponible en Inglés y Francés.

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Handbook on How to Use the Set4food Decision Support System (DSS) [English]

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Politecnico di Milano
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacopo Barbieri, Emanuela Colombo, Fabrizio Leonforte, Fabio Riva
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Power, SAFE Recommendations

This handbook supports the use of the Decision Support System (DSS) available on www.set4food.org. The DSS is an online software that can help identify potentially appropriate energy technologies for food utilization, given a certain context of people displacement. The five available modules deal with: 1) food cooking; 2) food preservation; 3) power generation; 4) water pumping; and 5) water treatment. The handbook is also available in Spanish and French

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Recommandations sur les Technologies Énergétiques Durables pour L´Utilisation des Aliments dans les Contextes Humanitaires et les Installations Informelles [Français]

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Politecnico di Milano
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacopo Barbieri, Emanuela Colombo , et al.
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Lighting, Power, SAFE Recommendations

Cette publication présente des aspects technologiques liés à l'utilisation des aliments (à savoir la cuisson des aliments, la conservation des aliments, la production d'électricité, le pompage de l'eau, et le traitement de l’eau. Il fournit au lecteur un aperçu général et une description détaillée de toutes les technologies potentiellement d’intérêt pour l'aide humanitaire. Les technologies sont décrites avec des fiches techniques, des références, des exemples d'application sur le terrain, et des recommandations pratiques, et confronté à une analyse SWOT. Des exemples pratiques de l'innovation sur le terrain dans des contextes humanitaires sont décrits, ainsi que les recommandations et les bonnes pratiques des projets pilots SET4food (www.set4food.org). Ce document est également disponible en anglais et en espagnol.

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Directrices Sobre Tecnologías Sostenibles para la Utilización de los Alimentos en Contextos Humanitarios y Asentamientos Informales [Español]

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Politecnico di Milano
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacopo Barbieri, Emanuela Colombo , et al.
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Lighting, Power, SAFE Recommendations

Esta publicación presenta los aspectos tecnológicos relacionados con la utilización de los alimentos (es decir, la cocción de los alimentos, la conservación de los alimentos, la generación de energía, el bombeo de agua, el tratamiento del agua). Se ofrece al lector una visión general y una descripción detallada de todas las tecnologías potencialmente de interés para la asistencia humanitaria. Estas tecnologías son descriptas con fichas técnicas, referencias, ejemplos de aplicación en el campo y recomendaciones prácticas, y en comparación con un análisis FODA. Asimismo, se describen ejemplos prácticos de innovación provenientes del trabajo de campo en contextos humanitarios, así como las recomendaciones y las lecciones aprendidas de los proyectos piloto SET4food (www.set4food.org) Este documento también está disponible en Inglés y Francés.

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Guidelines on Sustainable Energy Technologies for Food Utilization in Humanitarian Contexts and Informal Settlements [English]

Organizations: COOPI-Cooperazione internazionale, Politecnico di Milano
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacopo Barbieri, Emanuela Colombo , et al.
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Lighting, Power, SAFE Recommendations

This publication introduces technological aspects related to food utilization (i.e. food cooking, food preservation, power generation, water pumping, water treatment). It provides the reader with a general overview and a detailed description of all the technologies potentially of interest for humanitarian assistance. These are described with technical sheets, references, examples from field application, and practical recommendations, and compared with a SWOT analysis. Practical examples of field innovation in humanitarian contexts are described, as well as recommendations and lessons learnt from the SET4food pilot projects (www.set4food.org) This document is also available in Spanish and French.

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The Japanese Tsunami - A WLPGA Case Study

Organization: World LPG Association (WLPGA)
Location: Japan
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: SAFE Projects

This case study by the World LPG Association (WLPGA) looks at the critical role that liquid petroleum gas (LPG) played in the humanitarian response to the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan. The study describes how LPG proved to be a reliable and easily distributed recovery energy source, as it was used in kitchen kits, electricity generation, and evacuee housing units, in addition to serving as a substitute gas and autogas. The study also describes how numerous LPG industry members, distributors, and retailers collaborated with NGOs and the Japanese Government to respond to the disaster.

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Being Prepared: Emergency Kits at the Ready - A WLPGA Case Study

Organizations: World LPG Association (WLPGA), Repsol
Type: Fact Sheets

This fact sheet by the World LPG Association describes emergency kits designed and provided by the Repsol Foundation in times of natural disaster. In these situations, portable liquid petroleum gas (LPG) systems provide a solution for emergency cooking, lighting and heating needs. Repsol has been working with organisations such as the Red Cross in disaster situations for many years. These kits can be requested by NGOs and national governments through Repsol and the Repsol Foundation. Each kit contains a stove, a basic kitchen set, a lamp, and height cartridges of 190 grams of butane.

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LPG to the Rescue - Australian Helicopter Delivery

Organizations: World LPG Association (WLPGA), Elgas
Location: Australia
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: SAFE Projects

This case study, written by the World LPG Association in partnership with Elgas, describes an emergency scenario in Cooper's Creek, Australia, when ex-tropical cyclone Oswald caused a landslip that cut off the only road into the town in February 2013. Elgas coordinated with the NSW State Emergency Service (SES) to deliver LPG canisters by helicopter to the stranded residents for their energy needs, which were becoming dire. Safety was a top priority in this project, both in the delivery of the cylinders and in training designated town residents on proper handling and connection procedures.

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LPG: A Primary Source of Energy in Disaster Relief

Organization: World LPG Association (WLPGA)
Type: Fact Sheets

This piece by the World LPG Association (WLPGA) highlights the benefits and possible uses of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a much-needed fuel in disaster scenarios, with a reference to how LPG was used in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The unique benefits of LPG mean that it can be transported, stored andused virtually anywhere and this exceptional energy offers swift solutions in times of emergency. Potential uses in disasters include: boiling water, heating, refrigeration, fueling temporary kitchens, power generation, powering wireless communications, and LPG-air (SNG) systems.

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Statistical Snapshot: Access to Improved Cookstoves and Fuels and its Impact on Women’s Safety in Crises

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Gender-based violence

In order to build evidence that cooking interventions can have life-saving impacts for crisis-affected women and girls, the Alliance has commissioned research on the relationship between gender-based violence and cookstove and fuel access. This fact sheet presents a statistical snapshot of evidence linking fuel collection to incidents of gender-based violence and other hardships for women.

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Good Industry Practices for LPG in Commercial Kitchens

Organization: World LPG Association (WLPGA)
Type: Tools & Guidelines

In communities where liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is challenging the use of traditional fuels (wood, charcoal, coal, animal waste) and kerosene in domestic kitchens, lies also the opportunity to use LPG in commercial kitchens.These commercial kitchens can be found in establishments such as schools, orphanages, prisons etc. and the use of LPG here can be an opportunity to encourage change at home. This Guide can be used by those stakeholders grappling with the decision to move away from inefficient traditional fuels and kerosene to LPG. It contains important advice on the decision to change, designing the LPG system, operation and maintenance, and the important question of keeping the kitchen safe.

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Heat, Light and Power for Refugees: Saving Lives, Reducing Costs

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Owen Grafham, Glada Lahn
Type: Research
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Heating, Lighting, Power, SAFE Projects

This flagship report by the Moving Energy Initiative (MEI) - a consortium of organizations including Chatham House and the Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) - focuses on the energy needs and use of refugees and displaced people worldwide. It presents the first-ever estimates of the volume and costs of energy used in situations of forced displacement worldwide. The evidence strongly suggests the need for an overhaul in the way that energy is managed within the humanitarian sector and shows how new approaches could benefit refugees and displaced people, host country communities and the environment.

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Fuel-efficient Mud Stoves in Darfur, Sudan

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Location: Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence

In this fact sheet, FAO describes the challenges posed by the use of fuel wood in Darfur, their approach to implementing fuel efficient stoves (FES), and the project's impacts on gender, health, nutrition, and llivelihoods.

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SAFE Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) Humanitarian Training and Workshop Report

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Type: SAFE Resources, Trainings & Workshops

In July 2015, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and UNHCR held their second annual SAFE Humanitarian workshop and training in Kampala, Uganda, welcoming more than 90 participants from 25 countries. The event brought together humanitarian NGO field staff, UN agencies, energy sector stakeholders, government and private sector representatives, and refugee leaders to discuss the challenges and best approaches for providing safe access to fuel and energy in crisis settings.

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UNHCR, the Environment, and Climate Change

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Type: SAFE Resources, Strategies & Policies
Keywords: Climate Change, SAFE Projects

This policy document addresses why climate change and disaster displacement are concerns to UNHCR, discusses how UNHCR is addressing these challenges, and describes how UNHCR is enhancing the resilience of its persons of concern. Pages 16-17 specifically address SAFE and profiles SAFE projects in Ethiopia (ethanol), Chad (fuel efficient stoves), Rwanda (carbon financing), and the IKEA Foundation's "Better Lives for Refugees" campaign.

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Nordic Action on Gender and Climate

Organization: Nordic Council of Ministers
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Climate Change

With this fact sheet, the Nordic countries answer the question of why it is so important to integrate gender issues into climate policies and the next major climate agreement. Examples of Nordic-backed initiatives linking gender and climate issues are also showcased.

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Gender Equality in the Energy Sector: Understanding How Renewable Energy Contributes to Empowerment

Organization: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Type: Trainings & Workshops
Keywords: Gender-based violence

This webinar recording is the first in the Gender Equality for Climate Change Opportunities (GECCO) webinar by IUCN's Global Gender Office (GGO). It provides the basics on why it is necessary to address gender in the energy sector, as well as pinpoint where good practices and knowledge gaps exist. The content of the webinar (held on October 22, 2015) is expanded upon by succeeding learning sessions.

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Assessing Woodfuel Supply and Demand to Support Affected Populations in Protracted Crises

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rémi D'Annunzio, Yelena Finegold, Arturo Gianvenuti, Matieu Henry, Andreas Thulstrup, Pieter Van Lierop, Xia Zuzhang
Location: Ethiopia
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood

The objective of this article is to present a methodology for assessing woodfuel supply and demand, which was tested in Shimelba refugee camp in Ethiopia. The study aimed to determine the available biomass for fuel (supply) and the consumption at a given point in time (demand) and then calculate whether the rate at which wood harvesting exceeded wood re-growth in the camp. Results indicated that forests and shrubs represented 36 and 34% of land area in 2000 and 2013 respectively. Aboveground biomass was 150, 51 and 27 t ha-1 in closed forest, open forest and shrubland respectively. In total, 9,800 t was lost between 2000 and 2013. Through on-site interviews, it was possible to estimate that 12 kg day-1 of fuelwood was consumed by each household for cooking and 6,840 t was extracted yearly. The results from the demand and supply analysis are consistent with the spatial analysis. It has been estimated that between 527 and 1,818 ha would need to be planted to avoid further degradation.

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Gender Equality and Energy

Organization: World Bank
Type: Trainings & Workshops

Dates: November 16, 2015 - December 18, 2015 Energy affects women and men differently, as men and women have different roles and responsibilities in households, markets and their communities. This makes their access, use, and the impact of energy services also different. This facilitated 5 week course explores linkages between gender and energy through video presentations, readings, quizzes, interactive problem-solving exercises, and online discussions. The following 6 topics will be covered: Overview of gender equality and energy Gender and energy access: household energy and rural electrification Gender equality and electricity infrastructure Gender and clean energy: renewable energy and energy efficiency Gender and energy policies Tools and guidance Participants will have increased capacity and knowledge on research, data and country level experience. After the course, participants can stay connected to this network of practitioners by joining the online Gender and Energy Practitioners’ Network (join). Target Audience: This module targets multiple stakeholders, especially social development and energy specialists, including policy makers, practitioners, and civil society organizations’ staff that have a special interest in a more in-depth look at issues related to gender and energy.

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SAFE : Protéger les femmes et l'environnement dans la région des Grands Lacs d'Afrique [Français]

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Project report/evaluation

Ce document donne un bref aperçu des principales conclusions , les défis et les recommandations de trois ans le projet de la CMR : « Protéger les femmes et l'environnement de la région des Grands Lacs d'Afrique : Mise en pratique les politiques à élaborer une stratégie de combustible de cuisine évolutive et durable . " L'objectif global du projet était de réduire l'incidence de la violence et l'exploitation subie par les femmes déplacées dans la région des Grands Lacs de l'Afrique en assurant un accès sûr à appropriée , carburant durable de cuisson .

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SAFE: Protecting Women and the Environment in the Great Lakes Region of Africa [English]

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Project report/evaluation

This document provides a brief overview of key findings, challenges, and recommendations from WRC's three-year project: "Protecting women and the environment of the Great Lakes Region of Africa: Turning policy into practice to develop a scalable and sustainable cooking fuel strategy." The overarching goal of the project was to reduce the incidence of violence and exploitation experienced by displaced women in the Great Lakes region of Africa by ensuring safe access to appropriate, sustainable cooking fuel.

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Ensuring Safe Access to Energy for All

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Location: South Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Projects

In this article from Dimitra Newsletter (Issue 27, September 2015), FAO discusses its experiences implementing SAFE projects in South Sudan, addressing challenges and lessons learned from introducing fuel-efficient stoves, reforestation activities, and livelihood activities that can replace woodfuel production and selling.

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Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action

Organization: Inter-Agency Standing Committee
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

These Guidelines represent a comprehensive revision to the original 2005 Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidelines for Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings. The content and design of the revised Guidelines was informed by a highly consultative process that involved the global distribution of multi-lingual surveys in advance of the revision process to help define the focus and identify specific needs and challenges in the field. GBV

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Safe Access To Fuel and Energy (SAFE) 2015

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Projects

A one-page fact sheet on WFP's SAFE program, including various challenges linked to the access of cooking fuel, namely: protection and gender, environment, nutrition, health, education, and livelihoods.

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Minutes: Nepal Local Coordination Call #1, 6.03.2015

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC) has been hosting a 'Nepal Earthquake Energy Response' forum in order to facilitate better coordination and support among various international and national organizations working to provide energy solutions to earthquake victims. The main objective is to share information and align efforts to avoid duplication. In this vein, it was deemed necessary to have a similar forum at the national level could coordinate local activities, and different agencies could meet to share information, thus exploring opportunities for collaboration. The Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) hosts these meetings on a biweekly basis. This resource contains the Meeting Minutes for the first local call on June 3rd, 2015.

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UNDP Supply & Delivery of Solar PV Systems, UV based Water Sterilizing Systems, and Mobile Charging Stations

Organization: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Location: Nepal

UNDP is inviting bids for a long term agreement for the supply of solar PV systems and solar mobile charging stations for public institutions in earthquake-affected districts in Nepal. This work is part of UNDP's Renewable Energy for Rural Livelihood Programme (RERL). Due date for bids is September 10th, 2015.

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Energy for the Forcibly Displaced: A Submission of the Moving Energy Initiative to the World Humanitarian Summit

Organization: Moving Energy Initiative
Author(s)/Editor(s): Owen Grafham, Glada Lahn
Type: Strategies & Policies

Energy services for forcibly displaced people currently consume hundreds of millions of dollars of donor funding each year and take their toll on the health and security of refugees and displaced people, particularly women and girls. Energy is integral to some of the most basic human needs such as adequate temperature of shelter, supply of clean water, cooked food and lighting. Community services such as health care and education are a primary concern for donors but energy is also a vital pre-requisite for these services, as well a vital factor in enabling self-reliance through communication, information and livelihood activities. This submission report looks at how this energy is currently provided and attempts to estimate for the first time the costs, both human and financial, of the current methods. It offers a clear case for improving the effectiveness of donor funding and prioritising energy interventions to improve lives and livelihoods, both amongst the displaced and in the host country communities, as well

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Innovative Approaches to Meet Cooking Needs in Humanitarian Response

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Type: Strategies & Policies
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, SAFE Recommendations, Stove Distribution

The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) and the consultations leading up to this event present a unique and important opportunity for the humanitarian community to identify gaps in service provision and create innovative solutions. One particularly glaring gap is the absence of programming to provide fuel or technology for safe, fuel-efficient cooking among refugees, IDPs, those affected by natural disaster, and other crisis-affected populations.

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Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies

Organization: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin R. Kenny
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

This presentation by Erin R. Kenny of UNFPA provides a very good overview of gender based violence (GBV) for those new to the topic. It defines basic terms, answers common questions, and provides some guidance on designing appropriate GBV prevention and response programs. An additional resource, a timeline covering the evolution of GBV programs in emergencies, is available here: https://phap.org/sites/phap.org/files/civicrm/persist/contribute/files/150806-Evolution-of-GBV-Programmes-in-Emergencies.pdf Erin originally gave this presentation in a World Humanitarian Summit webinar on the subject of Gender Based Violence in Humanitarian Crises, hosted by Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection (PHAP), on August 6th, 2015. A recording of the full session is available here: https://phap.org/civicrm/event/info?reset=1&id=301.

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SAFE Humanitarian Working Group TOR & Membership Application

Type: SAFE Resources, Strategies & Policies

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #6, 6.4.2015

Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on June 4, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #7, 6.11.2015

Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on June 11, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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AEPC tender for purchase of solar energy systems in Nepal

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal

The Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Government of Nepal has published a tender notice for procurement of domestic renewable energy technology solutions for earthquake relief efforts. Please find the link to relevant documents here: http://www.aepc.gov.np/?option=workwithus&page=tor&status=A&mid=9&sub_id=52. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact Shekhar Sharma: shekhar.sharma@aepc.gov.np, phone: +977-1-5536843/5539391 Ext.131.

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AEPC tender for purchase of 9550 cookstoves in Nepal

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal

AEPC launched an open tender for 9,550 improved cookstoves to be distributed to households affected by the Nepal earthquakes. This tender closed on June 17. 2015. Current bids can be found at: http://www.aepc.gov.np/?option=workwithus&page=tor&status=A&mid=9&sub_id=52

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Food Security Cluster Assessment of Stove & Fuel Needs: Nepal Earthquake

Organizations: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Food Security Cluster (FSC), Nepal Food Security Monitoring System
Location: Nepal
Type: Research

An assessment of the cookstove and fuel needs in Nepal after the 2015 earthquake.

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Food Security Cluster Household Questionnaire: Nepal Earthquake

Organizations: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Food Security Cluster (FSC)
Location: Nepal
Type: Research

Rapid assessment questionnaire to assess the food security needs of those affected by the 2015 earthquakes in Nepal.

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Nepal: A Report on the Food Security Impact of the 2015 Earthquake

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Food Security Cluster (FSC), Nepal Food Security Monitoring System
Location: Nepal
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Malnutrition

Despite recent progress to rebuild affected areas, housing remains a key concern. Powerful aftershocks in the weeks following the 25 April earthquake have triggered fear of further destruction, even in areas where housing damage has been minimal. The effect of the earthquakes on food security has also been significant, with widespread loss of food stocks and severe disruptions to market functionality and access in some areas. The current landslides and the expected worsening of road and trail conditions during the upcoming monsoon season is also of significant concern.

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #5, 5.28.2015

Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on May 28, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #4, 5.21.2015

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, World Food Programme (WFP), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Lifeline Fund (ILF)
Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on May 21, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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Minutes: Nepal Local Coordination Call #2, 6.24.2015

Organization: Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes
Keywords: SAFE Projects

Minutes from the local Nepal call on June 24, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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SEAD Street Lighting Evaluation Tool

Location: Nepal
Keywords: Lighting, Lighting Distribution

The SEAD Street Lighting Tool provides a quick, easy way for government procurement officials to evaluate the quality, efficiency, technical compatibility, and lifetime cost of different street lighting products. The tool is available in English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #3, 5.14.2015

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), Mercy Corps, Empower Generation, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) / Doctors Without Borders
Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on May 14, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquakes.

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #2, 5.7.2015

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, World Food Programme (WFP), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), Mercy Corps
Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on May 7, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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Minutes: Nepal SAFE coordination call #1, 4.30.2015

Organizations: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, World Food Programme (WFP), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Mercy Corps, International Lifeline Fund (ILF), d.light
Location: Nepal
Type: Meeting Minutes

Minutes from the Nepal SAFE call on April 30, 2015 to coordinate energy response activities after the earthquake.

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Procurement of Off-grid Lighting Products – Guidance for Aid Organizations and Governments

Location: Nepal
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Lighting, Lighting Distribution

This Note provides technical guidance on important product features and key performance metrics that may be relevant in procuring off-grid lighting products. Humanitarian crises that result from armed conflict, epidemics, famine, natural disasters and other major emergencies are all characterized by different user needs for lighting. There is also often a strong cultural context that must be taken into consideration. It is important for aid organizations to understand both the technical capabilities of off-grid lighting products and the context and needs of the end users in order to determine the most appropriate procurement specifications to meet these needs.

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Women’s access to wood energy during conflict and displacement: lessons from Yei County, South Sudan

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Wani James Henry, Andreas Thulstrup
Location: South Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove

The example of South Sudan, with its millions of displaced people, exposes the pressing need for sustainable supplies of woodfuel and efficient cooking technologies in the wake of emergencies, to ensure not only food security, health and safety but also environmental sustainability.

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Cooking in the Congo: A Technical Assessment

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence

This report aims to provide a better understanding of the current situation of the domestic energy sector in North Kivu – with a particular focus on cooking, and how it affects the lives of communities living there. It provides an overview and analysis of the most significant energy-related interventions that have taken place (making a distinction between urban and rural/IDP-oriented) in the areas of concern. The analysis of experiences and impacts will help to identify lessons and positive practices for improved programming. Finally, this report assesses different energy resources and provides recommendations for appropriate cooking technologies in this specific context.

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2014

Indoor Air Quality Guidelines: Household Fuel Combustion

Organization: World Health Organization (WHO)
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Indoor Air Pollution

These indoor air quality guidelines for household fuel combustion aim to help public health policy-makers, as well as specialists working on energy, environmental and other issues understand best approaches to reducing household air pollution -- the greatest environmental health risk in the world today.

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Environment and Humanitarian Action: Increasing Effectiveness, Sustainability and Accountability

Organizations: UN Environment/OCHA Joint Unit (JEU), ProAct Network, Groupe URD
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Livelihood

This study, commissioned by the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, with the financial support of the Government of Finland, is the first stage of a larger project that seeks to examine the current state of integration of environmental considerations in humanitarian operations and to recommend collective action to improve the effectiveness, accountability, and sustainability of humanitarian action. It examines some of the achievements to date and proposes—based on extensive consultations – how the future agenda might be defined. The study references the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group and its decision tree diagrams on factors affecting choice of fuel strategy in humanitarian settings and matrix on agency roles and responsibilities for ensuring a coordinated multisectoral fuel strategy in humanitarian settings.

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Humanitarian Bulletin: Myanmar

Organization: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
Location: Burma (Myanmar)
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Projects

In Issue Issue 11| 1 – 30 November 2014 of its Humanitarian Bulletin, OCHA examines two SAFE-related concerns for IDPs in Myanmar: inadequate access to cooking fuel in Rahkine camps and the exposure of women and girls to gender based violence (GBV). The bulletin specifically mentions the SAFE Humanitarian Working Group in the final paragraph, references GBV research by FAO, and features a project by ICRC provide to fuel sticks made out of rice husks to three IDP camps.

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Technologizing Humanitarian Space: Darfur Advocacy and the Rape-Stove Panacea

Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Abdelnour
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence

This sociological research paper examines how fuel-efficient stoves came to be construed as an effective tool for reducing sexual violence globally.

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Cooking Fuel In and Around Nzulo and Shasha Displacement Sites

Organizations: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence

An assessment of the risks incurred when women and girls seek fuel for household energy needs, and of the decreased risk after the introduction of fuel-efficient stoves. The findings from this end-line assessment suggest that the exposure to risk of violence faced by the IDPs decreased after the introduction of fuel-efficient stoves. This reduction is primarily evidenced by fewer firewood collection trips and less time spent collecting firewood after the distribution of the fuel-efficient stoves and at the time of the end-line. In addition, participants reported that they were spending less money on buying firewood and were earning more money overall after receiving fuel-efficient stoves. While the introduction of fuel-efficient stoves created a number of positive outcomes, much more needs to be done to ensure the security and well-being of these communities. In particular, the lack of adequate food remains the main concern for people living in both the Nzulo and Shasha displacement sites.

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IOM Haiti - Waka Waka Lights Camp Survey

Organization: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Location: Haiti
Type: Research

In March 2014, IOM Haiti distributed a total of 1,155 Waka Waka lamps in 27 IDP camps throughout the greater metropolitan areas of Port-au-Prince, Petion-Ville, Delmas and Cite Soleil. These camps were selected based on a variety of actors such as threat of eviction, security issues, and evidently lack of electricity. In an effort to assess the impact of the Waka Waka lamps on the daily lives of the targeted IDP families, IOM teams carried out a brief survey a few weeks following the distribution.

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Lighting the way: The role of handheld solar lamps in improving women’s and girl’s perceptions of safety in two camps for internally displaced people in Haiti

Organization: International Rescue Committee (IRC)
Location: Haiti
Type: Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

A solar lamp distribution in post-earthquake Haiti provided a clean and popular alternative to traditional lighting sources but did not address the safety and security concerns of women and girls.

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Sustainable Energy Provision Among Displaced Populations: Policy and Practice

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Raffaella Bellanca
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

This report attempts to examine the factors that are inhibiting system-wide changes and the diffused uptake of sustainable energy solutions. The methodology of this study is outlined in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 explores the network of actors and initiatives present on the scene, and looks at their principal motives to action and efforts to date. This exercise reveals that a comprehensive approach to cover energy needs in humanitarian response is still some distance away and indicates where more attention could be devoted. Examples of projects on the ground are then employed in Chapter 4 to expose weaknesses affecting the sector, while promising and particularly innovative models are also highlighted. Chapter 5 seeks to identify underlying mechanisms causing the challenges encountered in the case studies. Findings are then discussed in the conclusions presented in Chapter 6.

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The Current State of Sustainable Energy Provision for Displaced Populations: An Analysis

Organization: Chatham House
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rebecca Gunning
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

This work forms part of the initial foundational research for the Moving Energy Initiative. The overall aim of the project is to increase access to appropriate sustainable energy among displaced people with a view to improving human security, building resilience, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation. This will be achieved through practical demonstration of sustainable energy solutions, reform of relevant humanitarian policies and practices, and through enhanced private sector engagement.

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Safe Access to Fuel and Energy: Rapid Assessment Report for Ruzizi DRC

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: SAFE Resources, Research

A rapid assessment of current needs and challenges related to cooking fuel, protection risks, and environmental degradation in Ruzizi Plain, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

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Burundi: Environment, Too Often Neglected

Organization: Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster
Location: Burundi
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove

The environment is an extremely important, yet often neglected, aspect of managing a camp throughout its life-cycle. As it is a cross-sectorial issue, part of the challenge is that it is not clear which actor is ultimately responsible and accountable for monitoring and advocating for environmental issues. Consequently, they ‘fall through the cracks’. The Burundi refugee camps suffered in this regard as environmental aspects were not fully considered until several years after the establishment of the camps. This changed in 2007, when the government of Burundi specifically requested the camp management agency to reduce or find alternatives to the quantity of cooking firewood distributed for use by camp populations, as well as opening erosion ravines affecting host communities. Subsequently the camp management agency initiated a wider range of environmental activities.

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Photo Essay on Training and Distribution of Solar Lanterns in Kiziba refugee camp

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Great Lakes Energy, Ltd
Location: Rwanda
Type: Trainings & Workshops

A photo essay on a project by Great Lakes Energy and UNHCR that provided the Greenlight Planet Sun King Pro solar lantern in exchange for refugees planting trees in Kiziba camp on the border of DRC and Rwanda. More than 3,700 refugee households received a solar lantern.

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Global Strategy for Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE): A UNHCR Strategy 2014-2018

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Strategies & Policies

UNHCR's global strategy for Safe Access to Fuel and Energy for 2014-2018.

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InStove Stove Carbon Offset, Fuel Savings,and Energy Savings Calculation Methodology

Organization: InStove
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets

These values are derived from a series of three standard Controlled Cooking Tests (CCT's) conducted in Nigeria with local cooks operating both the institutional stove and a traditional 3-stone fire. The CCT procedure was adapted from the Aprovecho Reseach Center testing protocol.

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2013

Environment in Humanitarian Action: E-Learning Course (English & Francais)

Organization: UN Environment/OCHA Joint Unit (JEU)
Type: SAFE Resources, Trainings & Workshops
Keywords: Environmental Degradation

This 1.5 hour Environment in Humanitarian Action e-Learning module provides humanitarian actors with information on how to effectively integrate environmental issues into humanitarian response and early recovery strategies. The training highlights the key opportunities, misconceptions and challenges for mainstreaming environmental issues into humanitarian action. Available in English and French.

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Safe Access to Fire fuel and Alternative Energy (SAFE) in North Darfur: Impact Assessment 2013

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: SAFE Resources, Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Project report/evaluation

This review presents the findings of an impact assessment and a technical review of the Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) programme in North Darfur. The programme in North Darfur was the first pilot SAFE implementation and as such the process of reviewing the SAFE programme is a first attempt at measuring the results and impacts of the programme. This will enable WFP to consolidate lessons learned, highlighting successes that may be replicable and challenges, providing guidance for further programming.

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The New Zealand Earthquakes of 2010 and 2011 - A WLPGA Case Study

Organizations: World LPG Association (WLPGA), Elgas
Location: New Zealand
Type: Project Report/Evaluation

This case study by the World LPG Association (WLPGA) discusses the critical role that liquid petroleum gas (LPG) played in the disaster response to two earthquakes that hit New Zealand in September 2010 and February 2011. Elgas staff in Australia and New Zealand mobilized to deliver extra supplies of 9kg cylinders to the stricken area. People relied on the cylinders to keep warm, cook food, and heat water on their barbeques. The case study discusses safety, communications, and the overall impact on the LPG and other industries during the disaster.

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Production of briquettes as an alternative energy source in Mugunga I, Mugunga III, Bulengo and Green Lake camps in DRC

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Comite De Rehabilitation Du Sinistre Dans Son Milieu (CRSM)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: Research

Report on production of 2 million biomass briquettes to be distributed to 5,500 IDP households located in the 4 camps around Goma town in DRC.

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Sweet Nectar of the Gaia: Lessons from Ethiopia's "Project Gaia"

Organizations: Energy for Sustainable Development, Project Gaia
Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Clarke, C. Rogers, B. Sovacool
Location: Ethiopia

Though initiated only at smaller scales so far, “Project Gaia” offers an innovative Ethiopian model for using byproducts from the sugar industry to create an ethanol fuel that can be utilized by cleaner burning cookstoves, predominately internally displaced refugees. Backed by the Shell Foundation and a collection of NGOs, Project Gaia has distributed almost 4000 ethanol combusting stoves throughout refugee camps in Ethiopia. After summarizing the research methods utilized by the authors and introducing readers to the energy situation in Ethiopia, this study describes the history, benefits, and challenges of Project Gaia.

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Baseline Survey on Safe Access to and use of cooking energy in Nzulo Camp and the Surrounding villages in North, Kivu, DRC

Organizations: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

The North Kivu Province in eastern DRC is undergoing a violent conflict between the Congolese army and M23 militia. This has led to massive displacement of the population, and the creation of several internally displaced person (IDP) camps. The WRC & IRC undertook a baseline survey to assess the living conditions of IDPs in relation to their acquisition and use of cooking fuel and burden on host communities. The survey found that the primary source of fuel was firewood and women and children in particular face adverse risks relating to the collection and consumption of firewood. Recommendations have also been made to improve IDP's access to sustainable fuels and efficient cook stoves.

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WFP SAFE Project in Kenya: Project Summary Report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

This report briefly summarises WFP’s Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) project in Kenya.

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WFP SAFE Project in Kenya: Kakuma fuel efficient stoves and gender based violence study report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

This report focuses specifically on the impact of fuel efficient stoves and gender based violence sensitization on the exposure to risk of gender based violence during firewood collection for refugees and the host community in Kakuma, Kenya.

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WFP SAFE Project in Kenya: Controlled Cooking Tests Report

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

A series of controlled cooking tests (CCTs) were undertaken at the Kakuma Refugee Camp in February 2013 to evaluate the performance of fuel-efficient stoves provided by the World Food Programme (WFP). The Kakuma Refugee Camp was an ideal location to conduct the CCTs as it provided the evaluators with an opportunity to collect information from three different groups – Somali and Sudanese refugees and the Turkana host community – each with different cultures, cooking practices, and cuisines.

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Empowering People- Report on Impacts

Organization: Endev
Location: Multiple
Type: Research
Keywords: Stove Distribution

In the following report, Endev summarizes the impacts they have accomplished to date through their energy service provision programs, including the provision of cookstoves. They have 5 main target areas: Reduced Poverty & Productive Use- Endev projects and partners have enabled 10.3 million people to gain access to energy. Gender- Endev projects have provided energy efficient fuels to make cooking easier and less time consuming for women and girls. Endev projects also provide lighting, thereby increasing the safety of women. Health - EnDev stove produce, on average emit 30 to 40 per cent less carbon monoxide and other pollutants that traditional stoves. Education- Endev projects have supported 6,400 schools to gain access to modern energy services. Environment & Climate- Endev stoves save up to 0.59 tonnes of CO2 equivalent each year.

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FAO Guidance Note on SAFE Access to Firewood and Alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines

FAO’s response to the cooking needs of assisted populations in emergency and recovery contexts focuses on natural resources management and livelihood activities, contributing to increased resilience in crisis and disaster-affected areas. This guidance note provides information and recommendations for these areas.

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Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) in Sudan

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

In this 2013 factsheet, the World Food Programme provides an update on SAFE issues, initatives and outcomes in Darfur, Sudan. The influx of refugees has led to environement degredation of the surrounding forest due to firewood collection and has exposed women and girls to great safety and health risks. The WFP has worked with the local communities to roll out several initiatives including income generating activities, providing fuel efficient stoves and are currently pioletting a biogas program.

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Impact Evaluation of Improved Stove Use in Burkina Faso – FAFASO

Organizations: International Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Author(s)/Editor(s): Gunther Benscha, Michael Grimmb, Katharina Petera, Jörg Petersa, Luca Tasciotti
Location: Burkina Faso
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

According to a WHO report (2009), approximately 16,500 people die every year from indoor air pollution caused by the fumes of biomass fuels in Burkina Faso. This does not include the huge number of people who experience various health issues due to indoor air pollution. In addition, wood fuel, a biomass fuel is a significant cause of deforestation in Burkina Fao. An initiative called for improved cook stoves (ICS) to be distributed to poor households in urban and rural areas. Improved cook stoves use less fuel and therefore decrease the consumption of wood fuel and reduce wood fuel collection. The following report is an impact evaluation of the last 3 years of the ICS initiative. A key finding of the report should that the use of the cookstove results in a susbtantial increase in fuel savings.

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WFP Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) Overview

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations

The following brochure is an overview on WFP's SAFE programming and desired outcomes. WFP focuses on 6 key areas to provide safe access to fuel and energy: protection, gender, livelihoods, health and nutrition, environment and education.

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WFP Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) Brochure

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets
Keywords: SAFE Projects, SAFE Recommendations

In the following brochure, the World Food Programme gives an overview of their SAFE initiatives by country. They have different SAFE initiatives in 6 different countries- Haiti, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Uganda

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2012

Fuel Efficient Stoves Baseline Report

Organizations: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Relief International
Location: Somalia
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Project report/evaluation

Relief International (RI) initiated a pilot project, Fuel Efficient Stoves (FES), that targeted three different locations, those being Mogadishu (Banadir region), Galkayo (Mudug region), andBardera (Gedo region) in Somalia, for the distribution of 20,000 fuel efficient stoves. The stoves acted both as a simple technological intervention which can reduce fuel consumption and as mitigation against the risks of women and girls suffering GBV while collecting firewood. The findings of this baseline study are presented in 6 themes that relate to FES, namely: Household demographics; Cooking styles; Household Energy Source Safety; Cooking habits and Firewood hazards.

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The Shelter Bulletin - Issue 03 - Light study in Somalia

Organization: Emergency Shelter/NFI Cluster, Somalia
Type: Research
Keywords: SAFE Projects

The Shelter Cluster facilitated Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) on solar lighting, with IDPs in Hargeisa Somaliland. The aim of the discussions were to: 1) Assess the present situation of light provision in households within three IDP settlements; 2. Understand and correlate information on light provision and the areas where women feel most insecure within the settlement; and 3. Pre-test the suitability of four types of house hold solar lamps, especially for women, in the three settlements. Findings indicate that solar lighting systems play a crucial role in averting gender based violence within the settlements.

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Alternative Domestic Energy Options for Darfur: A Review

Organizations: ProAct Network, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

The Darfur Alternative Energy Project (DAEP) was one of three projects implemented by ProAct Network from December 2009 to March 2011 under the umbrella of the UNEP Sudan Integrated Environment Project (SIEP), an initiative funded by DfID. The main objective of the project was to undertake a review of the current situation, including an economic and policy analysis, with a view to identifying viable and appropriate alternative energy options that could reduce the consumption of fuelwood and charcoal and hence slow deforestation in Darfur. This review is based on extensive background research, consultations and field missions.

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A Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Rapid Assessment: Doro Refugee Camp, Upper Nile State, South Sudan

Organization: Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
Location: South Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence

The risk of being attacked when traveling outside the community has been identified as one of the most significant safety and security concerns faced by women and girls living in Doro. Incidents of SGBV do occur within the camp too, especially during the night time and at water points.

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Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE). Rome, Italy 2012. Workshop Report.

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Trainings & Workshops

The Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) 2012 workshop was organized by WFP’s Humanitarian Policy and Transitions Service after nearly three years of SAFE project implementation. Since 2009, WFP SAFE has reached 1.6 million beneficiaries in six countries: Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Uganda. The SAFE workshop was organised with the purpose of consolidating lessons learned, documenting WFP SAFE experiences in various field locations, and bringing together key global stakeholders in an effort to develop a common vision and way forward.

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Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE). BACKGROUND READER

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Trainings & Workshops

This report provides background for a Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) workshop to consolidate WFP’s experience, share lessons and decide on the ways forward. To create the report, WFP brought together UN agencies, NGOs, donors, private sector partners and other key stakeholders to share their experience in addressing the multiple challenges linked with access to cooking fuel for the most vulnerable in humanitarian, transitions and development settings.

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Amaray: Clean Cook stoves, The challenge of creating a smoke-free Peru

Organization: German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rodney Rascona
Location: Uganda
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

Amaray is a magazine developed by Energizing Development Project, which is a collaboration between EnDev and GIZ Peru. The magazine focuses on energy access issues in Peru, particularly in rural areas. This edition of the magazine is on clean cookstoves in Peru and the programs in place to reduce the amount of smoke that is emitted from cooking fuels.

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WFP Handbook on Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE)

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines

This handbook will guide current and future WFP programming. It will help professionals understand the broader impacts of limited access to cooking fuel and how SAFE can mitigate them.

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Scaling Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions through Women’s Empowerment

Organization: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Location: Multiple
Type: Tools & Guidelines

The Guide is meant for a wide-variety of sector stakeholders – including practitioners (private sector players, NGOs, CBOs, etc.), donors, policymakers, multinational corporations, investors, and academic institutions – to increase their understanding of why women are critical and how to ensure they are included in every clean cooking value chain segment.

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Light Years Ahead: Innovative Technologies for better refugee protection

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Fact Sheets

An update on how supporting UNHCR can transform the lives of hundreds of thousands of vulnerable refugees by providing access to innovative technologies.

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Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) in Haiti

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Haiti
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

In this 2012 factsheet, the World Food Programme provides an update on the SAFE issues and initiatives in Haiti. There was environmental degredation of Haiti's forest due to use of charcoal as an energy source prior to the earthquake After the earthquake in 2010 the availability of fuelwood or charcoal has become significantly decreased leading to the issues around energy access becoming more acute.

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2011

The GIZ Dadaab Household Energy Project

Organizations: ProAct Network, German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Gerald Chege Gitau
Location: Kenya
Type: Research

The overall objective of the UNHCR Environment Project being implemented by GIZ is to improve the living conditions of refugees and host community and promote collaboration between the two in conservation and rehabilitation of the environment in refugee hosting areas. GIZ is the lead Energy and Environment Implementing Partner of UNHCR in Dadaab.

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We Have No Choice: Safe Access to Firewood and Energy: Eastern Republic of Congo: Appraisal Report

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin Patrick
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

Following the launch of the SAFE guidance material in 2007 by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings, the SAFE partners have conducted several appraisals and surveys of refugee settlments and partner programs. This particular appraisal was collaborative effort by the WFP and WRC to look at existing energy access issues and the collective efforts to mitigate issues around the access to fuel and energy in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. This appraisal report looks at protection risks to women and children, health risks associated with the type of fuel used, environmental risks and any impact on livelihoods.

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Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy, WFP - North Darfur

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

This review presents the findings of an impact assessment and a technical review of the SAFE programme in North Darfur one year after implementation started. The SAFE programme in North Darfur is the first pilot implementation and as such the process of reviewing the SAFE programme is a first attempt at measuring the results and impacts of the programme. This will enable WFP to consolidate lessons learned, highlighting successes that may be replicable and challenges, providing guidance for further programming.

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Review of Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) Uganda

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Veronique Barbelet, Mariangela Bizzarri
Location: Uganda
Type: Research

This report summarizes the findings of a review of the implementation of the Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) project conducted in Karamoja (Uganda) in October 2011. The review stems from WFP’s continuous commitment to ensure safe access to cooking fuel to beneficiaries, with a special focus on displacement contexts and environmentally degraded areas. After almost two years since its beginning, the SAFE project in Karamoja brings about lessons that will significantly contribute to more effective and efficient implementation of the SAFE project globally.

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Enhancing Coping and Adaptation Capacity of the Coastal Community to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Change

Organization: Caritas Australia
Location: Bangladesh
Type: Research
Keywords: Climate Change, Livelihood

The following paper is a 2011 project update. The purpose of the project is to introduce various adapative practices in the local community in order to reduce the risk to climate change. The project was started in 2008 and covers 35 villages in Bangladesh. The initiatives address multi-sectoral issues live livlihood which are adversly affected by an increase in the unpredicabilyt of the environment. The project also has a advocacy component and works to influence environmental and livlihood policy at the local, regional and national level.

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Cooking Fuel and the Humanitarian response in the Horn of Africa

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Horn of Africa
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

The Inter-Agency Task Force on SAFE (IASC Task force) in Humanitarian settings have produced guidance for access to cooking fuels in refugee situations to be used by various humanitarian actors. This Guidance note looks at issues and recommendations specific to the refugee camps located in the Horn of Africa using the IASC guidance.

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Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) Project, Final evaluation report

Organizations: Austrian Development Corporation, CARE, European Commission
Author(s)/Editor(s): Athanase Munyampundu, Anicet Munyehirwe
Location: Rwanda
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Recommendations

The Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) project aims to provide efficient, sustainable and affordable energy fuels and energy related services in rural and per-urban Rwanda. The project will also provide income- generating activities in the energy services sector. The project aims to reduce biomass energy dependency by 50% in four districts of Nyamagabe, Nyaruguru, Gisagara and Huye. The final evaluation was conducted at the end of the project, and the key findings were complied in this final evaluation report. Some of the findings include that project was able to acheive several of its intended goals and was able to implement all the planned programs. There was variable success in some areas due to uptake of stoves, improper pricing of new stoves and adminstrative issues around some of the livlihood initiatives.

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2010

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): Demand, Supply and Future Perspectives for Sudan

Organizations: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Location: Sudan
Type: Trainings & Workshops
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove

This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop entitled "Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): Demand, Supply and Future Perspectives for Sudan," which was held in Khartoum on 12-13 December 2010. The workshop was hosted by the Ministry of Petroleum under a joint initiative led by the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Physical Development (MEFPD). The workshop brought together a diverse group of stakeholders to explore the use of LPG as an alternative source of energy to displace the reliance on wood fuel in Sudan. It therefore reflects a number of different concerns relating to the use of LPG including: the replacement of demand for energy from woodfuel – to reduce the rate of deforestation in Sudan; poverty alleviation – particularly with reference to how microfinance for LPG can enable poor communities to access fuel; and health – to reduce the impacts on health from indoor air pollution. This publication contains a compilation of the working papers presented during the workshop and is preceded by a joint statement that was drafted during the workshop.

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Fuel efficient stoves for Darfur: the social construction of subsistence marketplaces in post-conflict settings

Organization: Journal of Business Research
Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Abdelnour, O. Branzei
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

This paper explores the development of market roles and transactions in fuel-efficient stoves in Darfur from 1997 to 2008 as a grounded example of how subsistence markets are socially constructed in post-conflict settings. Using a combination of archival texts, interviews, and real-time discourses by protagonists, this study explains the who, what, why and how of emergent marketplaces by showing how development interventions come to imbue market participants and transactions with socially (re)constructed meanings.

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Evaluation of Manufactured Wood-Burning Stoves in Dadaab Refugee Camps, Kenya

Organization: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Location: Kenya
Type: SAFE Resources, Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the potential suitability of a new generation of manufactured biomass cooking stoves for refugee and Internally Displaced Person (IDP) environments as well as disaster relief situations. Berkeley Air Monitoring Group (Berkeley Air) was asked to combine rigorous quantitative stove performance testing using the Controlled Cooking Test protocol with as much qualitative assessment of the acceptability and usability of each stove as feasible during a time-limited visit to a refugee camp designated by USAID. At USAID’s request, UNHCR agreed to host and facilitate the stove performance testing at the Dadaab refugee camp, located in northeastern Kenya.

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Fuel- Efficient Stove Programs in Humanitarian Settings: An Implementer’s Toolkit

Organization: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Pam Baldinger, Marion Pratt, Mary Worzala
Location: Multiple
Type: Tools & Guidelines

The purpose of this Toolkit is to help humanitarian organizations determine if an FES program is feasible and appropriate for a given setting, and if so, how to design and implement an effective program for wood-burning stoves. These guidelines and associated tools represent standard good practices approved by the United States Agency for International Development/Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) for FES programs in immediate and protracted humanitarian contexts.

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Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Kenya: An Appraisal Report

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Kenya
Type: Research
Keywords: Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

Following the launch of the SAFE guidance material in 2007 by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings, the SAFE partners have conducted several appraisals and surveys of refugee settlements and partner programs. This particular appraisal was collaborative effort by the WFP and WRC to look at existing energy access issues and the collective efforts to mitigate issues around the access to fuel and energy in Dadaab, Kenya. This appraisal report looks at protection risks to women and children, health risks associated with the type of fuel used, environmental risks and any impact on livelihoods.

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Fuel and Firewood Initiative Program Factsheet

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, SAFE Recommendations

This factsheet gives an overview on the Women's Refugee Commission's Fire and Fuelwood Initiatives

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Firewood and Pneumonia: A Fatal Combination in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin Patrick
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Indoor Air Pollution, SAFE Recommendations

This factsheet makes the connection between firewood and pneumonia. When firewood is burned inside the home, toxic fumes are released which fill the lungs of those in the household, particularly women and children who are involved in the cooking activity. One of health impacts of the fumes in pneumonia. Refugees, who depend on firewood as a source of cooking and heating are more susceptible to ill health effects of firewood as they lack status, and access to better fuels and food.

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Briefing paper for the organizing pilot projects on the manufacture and development of the ethanol-fueled, energy-efficient, user-friendly CleanCook stove in Haiti

Organization: Project Gaia
Location: Haiti
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution, Stove Manufacturing

This briefing paper is an update on ProjectGaia's site visit to Haiti. The objective of the site visit was to set up the manufacturing and distribution of new user-friendly clean cookstoves that run on ethanol and are energy efficient.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls [French]

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In French) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This brochure highlights some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls [English]

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In English) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This brochure highlights some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls [Arabic]

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In Arabic) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This brochure highlights some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Report of the WFP-UNHCR Joint Assessment Mission

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Location: Bangladesh
Type: Research

The Joint Assessment Mission comprising of representatives of UNHCR, WFP and the Government of Bangladesh conducted the mission from the 10th to the 17th of October 2004. The objectives of the mission were to carry out an assessment of food and non-food requirements of the ongoing operation, to focus on the underlying causes of persistently high malnutrition and to make specific recommendations on the potential to reduce dependency on food assistance, alleviation of causes of using food for other purposes, modalities of assistance, composition of the food basket and the duration of assistance.

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Cooking Fuel Needs in Haiti: A Rapid Assessment

Organizations: World Food Programme (WFP), Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Haiti
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Women's Refugee Commission (WRC) and the World Food Program (WFP) worked together for the implementation of SAFE guidance into the Humanitarian efforts. They conducted a rapid assessment of SAFE to access the situation in Haiti and to provide recommendations. The following assessment identifies the most pressing issues in both rural and urban areas in Haiti and provides recommendations including a fuel strategy, a coordination strategy between all the various humanitarian actors and some medium to long term solutions to overcome the dependency on biomass fuels in the area.

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2009

Refugees and the Environment: An Analysis and Evaluation of the UNHCR's Policies in 1992-2002

Location: Global, Kenya
Type: Project Report/Evaluation
Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, Project report/evaluation

This study sets out to explain and evaluate the UNHCR’s environmental policy and its implementation. Using both qualitative and quantitative research methods, the study extensively examines environmental challenges related to firewood collection and fuel needs in refugee camps, particularly in Dadaab.

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Indoor air quality impacts of an improved wood stove in Ghana and an ethanol stove

Organization: Energy for Sustainable Development
Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Agbeve, S. Brant, F. Mengesha, D. Pennise, W. Quaye, W. Tadele, T. Wofchuck
Type: Research

This study was undertaken to assess the potential of two types of improved cookstoves to reduce indoor air pollution in African homes. An ethanol stove, the CleanCook, was tested in three locations in Ethiopia: the city of Addis Ababa and the Bonga and Kebribeyah Refugee Camps, while a wood-burning rocket stove, the Gyapa, was evaluated in Accra, Ghana. In both countries, kitchen concentrations of PM2.5 and CO, the two pollutants responsible for the bulk of the ill-health associated with indoor smoke, were monitored in a before and after study design without controls.

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Fuel Security and Supply Dynamics in Internally Displaced Persons’ Camps of Northern Uganda

Organization: The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance
Author(s)/Editor(s): Grace Kasirye Birikadde, Joy Clancy, Magi Matinga
Location: Uganda
Type: Research

This study aimed at examining the fuel supply mechanisms in Internally Displaced Persons’ (IDPs) camps of Northern Uganda. About 1.2 million IDPs in Northern Uganda have put a lot of stress on the wood resources (major source of fuel) resulting into forests depletion, making firewood scarce, expensive and not affordable by many IDPs. The conditions related to or resulting from cooking fuel scarcity have an impact on foodsecurity, health, environmental protection and, also enhance gender-based violence. Although fuel shortage impacts in camps are known, the fuel issues are rarely thought of by the government, NGOs and other relief agencies. The main objective of the study was therefore, to gain an insight into how fuel supply in the IDPs’ camps can be made reliable, secure and adequate.

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Dealing with Energy Needs in Humanitarian Crisis Response Operations

Organizations: Institute for Environmental Security, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mark van Dorp

A quick scan of policies and best practices of humanitarian aid organizations and potential alternative energy sources and technologies.

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Matrix on Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Ensuring a Coordinated, Multi-Sectoral Fuel Strategy in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: Inter-Agency Standing Committee
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines

This Matrix is one of three main outputs of the IASC Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings (IASC Task Force SAFE). The other two outputs are the “Decision Tree Diagrams on Factors Affecting Choice of Fuel Strategy in Humanitarian Settings” and the International Network on Household Energy in Humanitarian Settings and its informational website, www.fuelnetwork.org. All three outputs provide practical guidance on developing effective, holistic coordination and response mechanisms for the range of concerns associated with the collection, supply and use of household energy in humanitarian settings. This Matrix should be read in conjunction with the Decision Tree Diagram. For additional technical information, please refer to www.fuelnetwork.org and to the pre-loaded flash drive which accompanies the hard copies of the outputs.

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Household energy in refugee and IDP camps: challenges and solutions for UNHCR

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Eveliina Lyytinen
Location: Multiple
Type: Research

The aim of this paper is to identify the current key challenges that UNHCR faces at the operational level in relation to household energy in refugee and IDP camps. It also discusses the lessons learned in the search for sustainable solutions. While the operational level at refugee and IDP camps is the focus of this report, UNHCR’s household energy policy is also explored. In IDP situations UNHCR´s household energy policy is discussed in the context of the inter-agency response.

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Decision Tree Diagrams on Factors Affecting Choice of Fuel Strategy in Humanitarian Settings

Organization: Inter-Agency Standing Committee
Location: Multiple
Type: SAFE Resources, Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

The Inter-Agency Task Force on SAFE (IASC Task force) developed guidance for humanitarian actors working in refugee situation. The Decision Tree Diagrams on Factors Affecting Choice of Fuel Strategy in Humanitarian Settings address the different types of cooking fuel options that will be most appropriate in a particular emergency setting.

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Evaluation of the Process of Integration of ACF Kenya’s ECHO funded program in North Eastern Province, Kenya

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stephen McDowell, Paul Obura, Susan Wangai
Location: , Kenya
Type: Research
Keywords: Malnutrition

Action Against Hunger Kenya (ACH) implementing a multi-sectoral program to address issues related to the vulnerability and mortability risks to malnutrition in the north eastern province of Kenya. Indpendent consultants were brought to evalute the progress of this integrated program. The findings are presented in this report, and highlight areas where the program has been successful like the ability to deliver on set goals and areas where there could be improvement like integrating community and project targeting systems. The report also stated that the project's one-year cycles were too short and conterproductive.

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2008

Clean, safe ethanol stoves for refugee homes

Organization: Gaia Association
Author(s)/Editor(s): Milkyas Debebe
Location: Ethiopia

The Government of Ethiopia recognised the potential for using ethanol as a clean fuel for cooking, and commissioned an 850-household pilot study of the ethanol-fuelled CleanCook stove in both refugee camps and urban households. This stove, developed in Sweden for the leisure market, uses an innovative non-pressurised canister in which ethanol is adsorbed onto mineral fibre and so does not spill.

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Development and Testing of the Berkeley Darfur Stove

Organization: University of California-Berkeley
Author(s)/Editor(s): Susan Amrose, Ashok Gadgil, Charles Kirubi, G. Theodore Kisch, Jesse Woo
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

In November of 2005, a team of scientists from LBNL visited Darfur to assess the potential of fuel-efficient stoves (""FES"") as a means to mitigate the fuelwood shortage. In addition to conducting a systematic informal survey, the team found that a metal FES, known as the Tara, required 50% less fuelwood to cook an IDP meal than the inefficient three-stone-fire used by 90% of the IDPs. The LBNL team emerged from the trip recommending a metal FES based on the Tara, but with two specific design modifications to make it suitable for conditions in Darfur. These included improving the mechanical stability of the stove during vigorous stirring, and maintaining or improving performance during a breeze.

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Competing for Development: A Case Study of Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur

Organization: Richard Ivey School of Business
Author(s)/Editor(s): Samer Abdelnour, Oana Branzei
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

The following research paper is a comparative study into various fuel efficient cookstoves (FES) used in Darfur Sudan, in particular the paper focuses on the efficiency and uptake of the Berkley-Darfur stove.

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Project Gaia Nigeria Pilot Study Final Report Results of Project Gaia’s CleanCook Methanol Stove Pilot Study in Delta State, Nigeria

Organizations: Delta State Government, Stokes Consulting Group
Author(s)/Editor(s): Joe Obueh
Location: Nigeria
Type: Research

In February 2007, Project Gaia Research Studies, a research project facilitated in Nigeria by the Centre for Household Energy and Environment, Stokes Consulting Group and Dometic, with grants from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under its Partnership for Clean Indoor Air and Delta State, and support from the Delta State’s Ministry of Power and Energy launched the pilot testing of 150 methanol fueled CleanCook stoves in 150 randomly selected homes from the three senatorial districts of Delta State, Nigeria.

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Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) Project. A Baseline study Report

Organizations: CARE, European Commission, International Business Centre (IBC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Anicet Munyehirwe
Location: Rwanda
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, Livelihood, SAFE Recommendations

The Community-assisted Access to Sustainable Energy (CASE) project aims to provide efficient, sustainable and affordable energy fuels and energy related services in rural and per-urban Rwanda. The project will also provide income- generating activities in the energy services sector. The project aims to reduce biomass energy dependency by 50% in four districts of Nyamagabe, Nyaruguru, Gisagara and Huye. This baseline report is an evaluation of the current situation and will be used to establish performance metrics and performance goals for the CASE project.

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Assessing the effectiveness of fuel-efficient stove programming: a Darfur-wide review

Organization: ProAct Network
Author(s)/Editor(s): Eugene Cole, David Stone, Grant Wroe-Street
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

The following report is an evaluation assessment of the fuel-efficient stove initiative administered by CHF International in Darfur, Sudan. The objective of the assessment is to find out whether the FES initiative was meeting its intended outcomes. Proact found that while there were many positive results to the initiative include a strong uptake of certain types of stoves, there were several gaps , some of which include inadequate inter-agency coordination, weak knowledge management and lack of monitoring and evaluation programing.

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2007

Summary Evaluation Report of Fuel-Efficient Stoves in IDP Camps in Uganda

Organization: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Location: Uganda
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

OFDA enlisted the assistance of the USAID Energy Team to undertake a multi-phase evaluation in order to derive “best practices” for future FES interventions. While the primary purpose of this evaluation is to provide guidance to USAID-funded organizations, USAID hopes to inform the broader humanitarian community by sharing the results of the evaluation with them as well. Eventually, the best practices will be developed into a series of recommendations and toolkits for use by NGOs, donors, and other groups operating FES programs in IDP settings.

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Sexual violence and firewood collection in Darfur

Organizations: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), Forced Migration Review
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin Patrick
Location: Sudan
Keywords: Gender-based violence

In hundreds of refugee and IDP settings throughout the world, women and girls are made more vulnerable to sexual violence because of the almost daily need to leave camps in search of firewood. More can and must be done to reduce this risk.

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Solar Cooker Project Evaluation: Iridimi Refugee Camp, Chad

Organization: Tchad Solaire
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brie Loskota
Location: Chad
Type: Research

In 2005, “CooKit” solar cookers were introduced in the Iridimi camp as part of an effort to reduce reliance on firewood and in turn improve the safety of the refugee women by lessening the need to leave the camp to collect wood. In October of 2007, a team of 15 people from eight organizations conducted an evaluation of solar cooking in the camp. The evaluation was undertaken over five days and included interviews with 121 refugees.

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Smoke, health and household energy

Organization: Practical Action
Author(s)/Editor(s): Liz Bates
Location: Multiple
Type: Research

The purpose of this research project is to support large numbers of people living in poverty, especially women and children, to reduce the major health risks caused by smoke from kitchen fires, through awareness of the dangers of smoke and interventions to alleviate it. Interventions, in the context of this publication, mean any activities or technologies introduced by the project to alleviate smoke. This publication describes a UK-Government funded research project done by ITDG in three very different communities under a Department for International Development (DFID) research grant. ITDG, an international NGO, has developed a framework to strengthen those living in poverty to work together, participating in all levels of the decision making process and leading to a sound redistribution and management of resources. Women in particular are supported through this approach. Ultimately, the process is intended to lead to a sustainable, commercially oriented approach and pro-poor policy action.

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Efficient Stoves for IDPs Protection and Environment Conservation Project

Organization: Sudanese Agency for Environment and Development Services, SAEDS
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ahmed Hassan Hood
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

OFDA enlisted the assistance of the USAID Energy Team to undertake a multi-phase evaluation in order to derive “best practices” for future FES interventions. While the primary purpose of this evaluation is to provide guidance to USAID-funded organizations, USAID hopes to inform the broader humanitarian community by sharing the results of the evaluation with other organizations. Eventually, the best practices will be developed into a series of recommendations and toolkits for use by NGOs, donors, and other groups operating FES programs in IDP settings.

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Tapping the Potential of Proalcool for the Household Energy Sector

Organization: Shell Foundation
Author(s)/Editor(s): Regina Couto
Location: Brazil
Type: Research

The Brazilian alcohol programme, focussing exclusively on the industrial-scale production of ethanol, has been successfully operating for more than thirty years. This article discusses how the same can be accomplished for cooking and household energy - a Proalcool movement for the household. Instead of relying on large scale ethanol production and distribution, the household energy market can be provided with ethanol from micro distilleries - a distributed rather than centralized energy model.

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Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring Summary for The Gaia Association CleanCook Stove Tests in the Kebribeyah Refugee Camp, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia

Organizations: Gaia Association, University of California-Berkeley
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

Under the guidance of the Center for Entrepreneurship in International Health and Development (CEIHD), Gaia Association has performed indoor air pollution (IAP) tests for the past year in homes in Addis Ababa and refugee camps throughout Ethiopia. IAP in refugee communities is a major concern, and the data collected from this study will aid in the mitigation of the negative effects of indoor smoke. CEIHD is assisting with the air quality measurements and equipment in pilot study homes and will use data generated by this study.

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Independent Evaluation of an Ongoing program 2007

Organization: AGEG Consultants
Author(s)/Editor(s): Detlef Loy, Jane Nimpamya, May Sengendo
Location: Uganda
Type: Research

GTZ GmbH appointed AGEG Consultants eG to carry out an independent evaluation of the “Energy Advisory Project” in Uganda. The evaluation was carried out by Detlef Loy (International Consultant) together with Mrs. May Sengendo and Mrs. Jane Nimpamya who acted as local consultants. The evaluation in-country took place between October 22nd and November 11th 2007 and comprised, in addition to consultation with GTZ team members, interviews with project partners and representatives of other agencies. These interviews were held in the national capital Kampala and in various other districts of the country in which the project is active. The interviews were supported by an appraisal of the project results.

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2006

Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur camps of Internally Displaced Persons: Report of Field trip to North and South Darfur

Organization: University of California-Berkeley
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ashok Gadgil, Christina Galitsky, Mark Jacobs, Yoo-Mi Lee
Location: Sudan

Three different metal fuel efficient stove (“FES”) designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung “ITDG” stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, “Avi,” was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved.

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Preparing for Scale up of Stoves and Ethanol

Organization: Project Gaia
Author(s)/Editor(s): Fiona Lambe
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

In 2005, Project Gaia introduced 130 CleanCook (CC) stoves to Kebrebeyah refugee camp, for the purpose of a three month pilot study. These stoves were placed in homes in the camp and the selected households were supplied with one 10-liter Gerry can of ethanol every 10 days during the study. The progress of these households was closely monitored by Project Gaia staff throughout the testing period and the study was conducted with the assistance and cooperation of the UNHCR and ARRA (Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs, FRDE).

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An Ethanol-fueled Household Energy Initiative in the Shimelba Refugee Camp, Tigray, Ethiopia: A Joint Study by the UNHCR and the Gaia Association

Organizations: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Gaia Association
Author(s)/Editor(s): Amare G/Egziabher, James Murren, Cheryl O'Brien
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove, Stove Distribution

Project Gaia (PG) and UNHCR piloted an alternative fuel cookstove in the Shimelba Refugee Camp in Ethiopia in order to reduce the dependency on firewood and reduce the need for firewood collection. The cookstove used was the CleanCookstove which ran on ethanol. An assessment 6 months into the pilot program showed a significant decrease in fuelwood collection and consumption. A decision was made to scale up the project, and the following report is an assessment of the pilot study and a strategy document to enable the expansion of the cookstove provision program.

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Finding Trees in the Desert: Firewood collection and alternatives in Darfur

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Erin Patrick
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

The Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children undertook a project looking at fuel alternatives that, if used in place of firewood, might help protect refugee and internally displaced women and girls.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls (English)

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In English) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This detailed report highlight some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Beyond Firewood: Fuel Alternatives and Protection Strategies for Displaced Women and Girls (Arabic)

Organization: Women's Refugee Commission (WRC)
Location: Multiple
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

(In Arabic) Everyday, millions of refugee and internally displaced women and girls have to leave their camps to look for and collect firewood. They need firewood for cooking and to sell as a source of income. They are subject to a high risk or rape, assault, theft and exploitation. This detailed report highlights some of the most pressing issues and establishes best practice protection strategies. It also provides guidance to implementers in the provision of alternative fuels and income generation activities.

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Project Gaia’s Ethanol-fueled CleanCook Stove Initiative and its Impact on Traditional Cooking Fuels Used in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Organizations: Gaia Association, University of California-Berkeley
Author(s)/Editor(s): Milkyas Debebe, James Murren
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

Project Gaia (PG) embarked on an 18 month pilot study in Ethiopia investigating the marketability and consumer acceptance of the CleanCook (CC) stove and ethanol fuel in late 2004. Never before used as a kitchen energy fuel in Addis Ababa, liquid ethanol was made available to the project through an agreement with the state-owned Finchaa Sugar Company, one of four manufacturers in Ethiopia’s emerging sugar industry. With funding from the Shell Foundation’s Sustainable Energy Program to carry out the study, 850 CC stoves were purchased from Dometic, a Swedish company and world leader in alcohol appliances, to be used and tested throughout the country, with 500 stoves marked for Addis Ababa, and the remaining 350 in institutional settings, including UNHCR refugee camps.

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Impact Evaluation of the Use of Ethanol with the CleanCook Stove in the Kebribeyah Refugee Camp

Organizations: Ethiopian Rural Energy Development and Promotion Center, Ministry of Mines and Energy
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ephrem Hassen
Location: Ethiopia
Type: Research

A team of two experts from the EREDPC socio-economics department conducted a two-day household fuel consumption and stoves use survey to study the impact of Project Gaia's stoves and ethanol fuel project. The survey was conducted from 09 June to 10 June 1998 in the camp on 40 selected households which were already using ethanol with the CleanCook stove.

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2005

The Crushing Burden of Rape: Sexual Violence in Darfur

Organization: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) / Doctors Without Borders
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Gender-based violence

MSF is providing health care to more than 1.250.000 people in 25 locations in Darfur. It is from among the patients MSF treats that we receive alarming numbers of reports of rape. All the victims seen by MSF in clinics and hospitals report similar mechanisms of violence and persecution at the time of the assault.Women are usually assaulted while pursuing their daily activities essential to the livelihood of their household. As mentioned above, 82% of the rapes occur when women are outside populated villages/towns while searching for firewood or thatch, while working in their fields (sometimes in unoccupied destroyed villages), while fetching water in river beds or while travelling between villages to go the market or to retrieve their family’s belongings in a destroyed village.

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Fuel provision and gender-based violence: fuel-efficiency as a prevention strategy

Author(s)/Editor(s): S. Ziebell
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Gender-based violence

This document explores the link between women’s roles in the provision of fuel for the household and their vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV) in displaced settings. It argues that more needs to be known not only about the prevalence of GBV outside of camps, but also about the broader security impact of fuel-related violence within camps.

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Darfur Humanitarian Stove Project Assessment

Organization: Aprovecho Research Center
Author(s)/Editor(s): Matthew Langol, Daniel Wolf
Location: Sudan
Type: Research
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

The International Lifeline Fund and Aprovecho Research Center led a research mission in Darfur to look at fuel efficient stoves. The objective was to look at existing use of fuel efficient stove, suggest improvements and look to expand the fuel efficient stove programs to all refugee camps by using the most sustainable fuels and efficient stoves. The report details the current performance of the existing stoves, types of indigenous material used and the receptivity of the stoves by the local community. It also considers the limitations of fuel efficient stoves and the constraints in expanding the program including the difficultly in sourcing alternative fuels. The report concludes with recommendations to the humanitarian community working in Darfur, including the UN agencies, local governments and NGOs.

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2002

Cooking Options in Refugee Situations: A Handbook in Energy Conservation and Alternative Fuels

Organization: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Author(s)/Editor(s): Matthew Owen
Location: Multiple
Type: Tools & Guidelines
Keywords: Fuel Wood, Fuel-Efficient Stove, Gender-based violence, SAFE Recommendations

The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a guidance document for UNHCR programmed and technical staff to manage energy issues particularly pertaining to cooking in refugee situations. The handbook covers three areas; the energy conversation section provides guidance around how to implement more fuel-efficient cooking techniques, use what is available locally and use of more fuel efficient stoves, the alternative fuel section looks how to conduct due-diligence on whether an alternative fuel is require and if so how to select an appropriate alternative fuel. The final focus of the handbook is on energy supply, where only if there are no sustainable local sources of fuel of types of cookstoves, then importing cookstoves and fuels should considered and programmed into organizing energy supply.

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1984

Energy Sector agreement- Assistance Program

Organizations: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank
Location: Sudan
Type: Research

In November 1982, a World Bank mission visited Sudan to identify issues and options in the country's energy sector. The mission's findings and recommendations are outlined in a joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Assessment Report

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No Publication Date

Briquette Press

Organization: InStove
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

Instove is piloting a new briquette press whose technical specifications are listed in this produce information sheet. Briquettes can be made by a number of materials including waster paper, animal dung and saw dust. This briquette press has been designed to be adaptable to a number of different location and different types of users.

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60 Liter and 100 Liter Biomass Cook stoves

Organization: InStove
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Fuel-Efficient Stove

This document is a product information sheet on a biomass cook stove which is both fuel efficient and reduces emissions during cooking. The cook stove comes in 2 sizes, 60 L and 100 L.

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WFP and Safe Access to Firewood: Protecting and Empowering Communities

Organization: World Food Programme (WFP)
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets

The World Food Programme is a part of the Inter-Agency SAFE Taskforce who are working to bring SAFE initiatives into humaniatarian programing. The following brochure, WFP provides an overview of the issues related to firewood consumption and collection. Fuel-efficient stoves can address a lot of SAFE issues and is therefore a win-win solution. The brochure provides information on the joint initiative between WFP,UNHCR, UNEP and other partners in rolling out a fuel-efficient stove program.

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Empowering Women Worldwide

Organization: Mercy Corps
Location: Multiple
Type: Fact Sheets
Keywords: Gender-based violence, Livelihood

Merycorps believes in the tremendous power that women have in investing in their selves and in those around them. They believe that investing in women will creating a multiplying effect on whole communities. They have four program areas outlined in this brochure: Economic Opportunities, Education, Addressing Climate Change and Improving Health.

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